Burma Ruby MinesBurmese Ruby Mines
Numerous papers were written in the 1800s and early 1900s - when many classic gemstone occurrences of historic significance were found - and gemmology and minerals became science. Early descriptions of the ruby mine locations, together with a basic card. Report by Mr.[John] Crawford's Missions to Ava, writer unpublished, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, Vol. 3, (July-September), pp. 359-370, (1827).
Brief descriptions of the ruby and saphire precious stone mines at Mo-Gat (Mogok) and Kyat-Pyan, five short working hours from Ava (near today's Mandalay). This information comes from a story of a UK diplomatic officer about a missions in the Kingdom of Ava (in the centre of Burma) in the years 1826-1827. The Narrative of the Proceedings and Scientific Observations of the Late Mission to Ava, Autor unbekannt, Edinburgh Journal of Science, Vol. 8, No. 15, pp. 10-25, (1828).
A brief account of the ruby and sapphirmines is contained in this account of a recent expedition to the Kingdom of Ava. Brief descriptions of the gem mines in Kyatpyin District, Kingdom of Ava, P.G. d'Amato, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. 2, No. 14, pp. 75-76, (1833).
One of the first recorded mine visit to Mogok; the orginal documents were translated by an Jesuit itinerary sometime before 1833. Commemorandum on the Metals and Minerals of Upper Burma, G.A. Strover, Chemical News, Volume 38, No. 724, pp. 187-190, (1873).
Published by The Ruby Mines of Burmah, writer not known, Chambers's Journal, vol. 4, no. 167, pp. 166-167, (1887). There is a short introduction to ruby degradation around Mogok. G.S. Streeter, Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, Band 3, Nr. 7-12, S. 216-220, (1887).
This paper outlines the progress of the UK Army on the Mogok Stone Tract and provides detail on the area' s terrain, geology and residents engaged in the extraction of ruby and other precious stone mines. Related articles released by the same year can be found in Murray's Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 5, p. 669-678, Littell's Living Age, Vol. 173, No. 2243, p. 756-761, and Library Magazine, Vol. 3, p. 517-524.
At the rubyndinminen bei Mogok, Burma, R. Gordon, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 261-275, (1888). Burma's top parts were incorporated into the British Empire in 1886, leading to the first opening of the country by Europeans to explore and trade companies.
Included in this paper is a synopsis of a poll tour of the Mogok area, which includes information about the different ethnical groups in the area and the different extraction techniques used by the locals to extract pyrene. Related essays by the same writer were republished in 1889 in the Revue Britannique, p. 139-154 and the Asiatic Quarterly Review, vol. 7, p. 410-423 (the latter printed in Littell's Living Age, vol. 67, no. 2353, p. 280-286).
G.S. Streeter, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Band 37, Nr. 1892, S. 266-275, (1889). An abstract of a keynote speech describing the Mogok Stone Tract landscape, the different ways of quarrying gemstones used by the locals and the ethnical groups living in the area.
Burmese Ruby Miner, writer unpublished, Engineering and Miner Journal, Vol. 49, No. 23, p. 636 (1890). There will be a brief debate about ruby degradation around Mogok. Burma Ruby The Economist, Volume 50, No. 2, p. 970, (1892). The brief account depicts the beginning and bright prospects of the ruby mine in 1889, followed by the omission to reclaim enough rubies to cover its operational costs and the debt and royalty payments due to the India authorities for the right to run a mine well.
M. Bauer, New Yearbook of Mineralogy, Geology and Palaeontology, No. 2, pp. 197-238, (1896). There is a mineralological characterization of the ruby mineral deposits in Burma. Burmese Ruby and Minerals: Writers of this paper give the first in-depth geologic descriptions of the presence of Ruby and other mineral deposits in Upper Burma.
T.T. Wynne, The Ruby Mines of Burma, T.T. Wynne, Translations of the Institute of and Metallurgy, Vol. 5, (17 février), pp. 161-175, (1897). Included in this item is a detailled account of the geological conditions and ruby quarrying in the Mogok area. Ruby Mines of Burma, G.W. Bird, "Hikes in Burma", p. 365-368, (1897).
This is a short abstract of the ruby mines that came under UK scrutiny in the mid-1880s. It is the Ruby Trade of Mandalay, Autor unbekannt, Jewelers' Circular, Vol. 38, No. 11, S. 7, (1899). This item describes the market place in Mogok where Ruby was purchased and sell.
J.G. Scott, "Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States", Volume 2, Part 1, Chapter 12 (Geology and Economic Mineralogy), pp. 213-227, (1900). Included in this volume is a synopsis of the geology of the Mogok Stone Tract and a descriptive ruby quarry.
Burma Ruby Mines, writer not known, Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. 70, no. 7, p. 187, (1900). This is a brief account of the activities of Burma Ruby Mines Ltd. Cornhill Magazine, Volume 11, No. 66, pp. 812-824, (1901).
This is a favourite report about a trip to the Mogok Stone Tract in the early 1800'. The Rubyining of Burma [Burmese ruby mining], G. Eisfelder, Berg- and Huettenmaennische Zeitung, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 1-8, (1902). Descriptions of Mogok County and ruby quarrying are given. Myanmar Rubies, writer not known, The Mineral Collector, Vol. 11, Number 2, p. 29-31, (1904).
This is a brief overview of mine activities around Mogok and how ruby was purchased and traded in the market place. It' a city based on rubies: Marvelous Mines of Mogok, Autor unbekannt, Appleton's Booklover's Magazine, Bd. 5, Nr. 1, S. 15-25, (1905). It reports on a tour of the mine facilities in Mogok and contains a series of historic photos of the area.
Burma Ruby Mines, A. Williams, "The Romance of Mining", Kap. 22, S. 358-366, (1905). This is a volume containing a summary of mineral and ore extraction activities and a section on the ruby mines in Burma describing the region's past and the extraction techniques used to localize them.
J. Merriman, The Wide World Magazine, Band 14, Nr. 95, S. 425-430, (1906). This book discusses the journey from Mandalay to Mogok and the techniques used to extract precious stone ruby from sedimentary deposit. Vienna Cathedral, W.G. Fitz-Gerald, Technical World Magazine, Bd. 7, Nr. 5, S. 476-483, (1907).
This is a favourite report (with photos) about ruby quarrying near Mogok. Myanmar Rubies, R.S.S.G. Stokes, "Mines et minéraux de l'Empire britannique", S. 26-31, (1908). This is a guide containing a brief section on the mines in the Mogok area, which includes the work of Burma Ruby Mines Ltd.
Wherever ruby is pebble, F. Thatcher, The World To-Day, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 1142-1148, (1908). The following report is a famous one about the ruby mines and the town. This is The Ruby Mines of Burma, Autor unbekannt, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Band 58, Nr. 2976, S. 62-63, (1909).
In 1907 the writer reported that 334,535 carat of ruby was imported from the Mogok area to Great Britain. Mogok Valley ruby mines, Burma, writer unpublished, Mining and Scientific Press, Vol. 99, No. 2560, p. 231, (1909). The mines are described briefly, with a commentary on how to tell ruby from ruby spinell with a microscope.
Wherever a ruby is found, writer not known, Around the World, Vol. 6, pp. 57-70, (1909). It contains a section on the ruby mines around Mogok and a detailed explanation of the area' s landscape and the extraction techniques used. As the world's great gem mines were uncovered, J.L. Cowan, Pacific Monthly, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 545-556, (1911).
Several mines have been discussed, among them the ruby mines near Mogok. The Ruby Mines of Burma, J.L. Cowan, Scientific Press, Volume 102, Nr. 2651, S. 657-658, (1911). Whilst some proposed that the creation of artificial rubies would make the extraction of naturally occurring ones less lucrative, this writer said that the UK mine licence holders around Mogok spent large amounts on the further expansion of mine activities.
Ruby and the Ruby Mines by Mogok, G.L. Duarte, Jewelers' Circular Weekly, Vol. 66, No. 1, pp. 125-133, (1913). The following articles describes the presence of gemstone ruins and the story and excavation of jewels around Mogok. Home, Die Heimat des Taubenblut-Rubins, L. Claremont, Knowledge - A Monthly Record of Science, Bd. 38, Nr. 1, S. 1-7, (1915).
It describes the easy extraction techniques used to extract ruby from near-surface rock in the Mogok area. The Ruby Mines Districts, E.C.S. George, Burma Gazetteer, volume 16A, pages 1-142, (1915). Brochure describing the region's past, geography, agriculture and economics.
There is also a debate about the degradation of ruby and other precious stone materials. Field vom Feld - The Ruby Mines of Mogok, Engineering and Manufacturing Journal, Bd. 99, Nr. 6, S. 288-289, (1915). A number of pictures of the ruby mines are shown in this book. Burma Ruby-Mines, writer unpublished, Chambers's Journal, Vol. 12, No. 602, pp. 445-448, (1922).
Describing the trip to Mogok to see the ruby mines is presented, together with a debate on the distinction of ruby from man-made and imitated material and the problems of mine workings. Comments on a trip to Burma Ruby Mines, R.R. Simpson, Transactions of the Mining and Geological Institute of India, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 42-58, (1922).
Mogok and its ruby quarries are united. Classification of the Geographical Classification of the Mineral Deposits of Burma, J.C. Brown, Records of the National Geological Survey of India, Vol. 56, Pt. 1, pp. 79-82, (1924). Presenting a geology of gemstone deposit at Mogok.
Visiting the Gem Districts of Ceylon and Burma, F.D. Adams, Bulletin of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, No. 166, pp. 213-246, (1926). Some minerals aus dem Ruby Mining District of Mogok, Upper Burma, F.D. Adams und R.P.D. Graham, Tranactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 113-136, (1926).
Scientists describe the mineral resources found in the gemstone mines of Mogok, among them chronoberyl, silimanite, nepheline, besodalite, foresterite, lepidolite, muskovite, topaz and casit. Burma: A major resource for gems and semi-precious stones, A.B. Calhoun, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 127, No. 18, pp. 708-712, (1929). There will be a debate about Burma as a resource of gems.
Ruby mines of Upper Burma: The Gemmologist, vol. 1, pp. 263-272, (1932) and the method of ruby mining in Burma, The Gemmologist, vol. 1, no. 11, pp. 335-342 and no. 12, pp. 367-373, (1932). Both of these J.F. Halford-Watkins items describe the adjustment of the Mogok mines and the processes used to extract them.
Mining Ruby in Upper Burma, J. Brown, Mining Magazine, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 329-340, (1933). RUBY Mines of Burma, D.H. Howell, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 2, No. 1, P. 3-6 and No. 2, P. 31-34, (1936). Both of these papers are a synthesis of an American consular report on the ruby mines near Mogok.
Geology and gems of the Mogok Stone Tract, Burma, L.A.N. Iyer, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, vol. 82, pp. 8-100, (1953). It presents a detailled explanation of the precious stone quarry around Mogok. RUBY Mines of Mogok, Burma, D.L. Spaulding, Gems & Gemology, Band 8, Nr. 11, S. 335-342, (1956).
He gives general information about the mines near Mogok and the industries that produce them. Quarrying in Burma, M. Ehrmann, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 3-31, (1957). An account of a journey to the jewel quarrying areas of the state is provided by the journal.
Myanmar - The mineral Utopia, M.L. Ehrmann, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, P. 306-318, No. 4, P. 442-454, and No. 5, P. 544-554, (1957). Three-part report on the quarrying of gemstones in Burma was produced by a well-known minerals and gemstone saler. Precious Stone Hunting in Burma, V.B. Meen, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 16, No. 7, P. 636-653 and No. 8, P. 746-757, (1962).
This is a two-part report describing the ruby removal around Mogok after a short stay with the writer. E.J. Gübelin, Journal of Gemmology, Band 9, Nr. 12, S. 411-426, (1965). The Mogok area and the presence and degradation of ruby and saphire.
In the Valley of the Ruby - The Ruby Deposits of Mogok in Burma[In the Valley of the Ruby - The Ruby Mines of Mogok in Burma], E.J. Gübelin, Lapis, Volume 2, No. 8, pp. 19-26, (1977). This article discusses the dismantling and the purchase and sale of Ruby in Mogok. Burma's rubies:
One review of the Mogok Stone Tract, P.C. Keller, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 209-219, (1983). This book provides information on the position, geological situation and degradation of ruby in the Mogok Stone Tract and summarises the geological characteristics of the Mogok ruby. Case of Burma Ruby Mines, R.V. Turrell, Modern Asian Studies, Volume 22, No. 1, pp. 141-163, (1988).
This is a historic report on the purchase of the famous ruby mines by UK investment in the latter part of the 1880'. Ruby deposit of Mogok, Burma, P.C. Keller, "Gemstones and their Origins", pp. 87-99, (1990). One section of this gemstone deposit section is dedicated to a descriptive of the ruby mines near Mogok.
This article by the renowned gemmologist from Switzerland describes the extraction, purchase and sale of ruby in Mogok.
Corundum - Part II: The Pigeon Blueblood Ruby of Burma, D.S.M. Field, Canadian Gemmologist, Volume 13, No. 2, pp. 72-77, (1992). Abstract of the author's lecture on the story and state of the ruby section around Mogok. State of ruby and sapphire mining in the Mogok stone wing, R.E. Kane and R.C. Kammerling, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 152-174, (1992).
In the Mogok region, this article discusses a revival of quarrying after several centuries of finite gemstone extraction. Writers summarise the extraction of gemstones at various sites in Myanmar, among them the Mogok Stone Tract. "R.W. Hughes, RWH Publishing, Boulder, Colorado, Colorado, (1997). A historic presentation of the Mogok Stone Tract and a detailled explanation of the Myanmar ruby are provided by the text.
T. Walthan, The Ruby Mines of Mogok, T. Walthan, Geology Today, Band 15, Nr. 4, S. 143-149, (1999). This is a beloved item describing the geology of the Mogok mountain ous region, located in a high quality metamorphous rock band containing many of the ruby marmosets. These are also found in primary sediments along the bottom of the valleys.
They are mined in opencast mines and subterranean galleries. Ruby crystal and ruby shards are often found on the market in Mogok and Kyatpyin. Re-evaluation of the 1885 UK invasion of Burma, A. Webster, The Historical Journal, Volume 43, No. 4, pp. 1003-1025, (2000). This is a historic report on the UK conquer of Burma in the lat 1880s.
1887 Upper Burma Ruby Regulation, U.T. Hlaing, Australian Gemmologist, Volume 23, No. 8, pp. 341-348, (2008). This book is about the origin of Britain's influence on ruby and precious stone quarrying in and around Mogok in 1887. "Themelis, 352 pages."
It presents a comprehensive account of the geological situation, geology and extraction of ruby and other precious stone materials in the Mogok area. The Mogok rubies and Robert Gordon: This is a historic report on the effort of a UK researcher to get Burmese ruby mines into the UK empire in the latter part of the 1880' by rail.
A Mogok Geology Primer, W. Atichat und R.W. Hughes, InColor Magazine, Nr. 24, S. 46-50, (2013). Writers discuss the complex geologic location of the Mogok stone deposit.