Burma RegimeBurmese regime
Getting to know Myanmar | Council on Foreign Relations
Myanmar's administration has initiated significant policy and economical reform since 2011 after decade-long periods of separation. In particular, Myanmar's long-time National League for Democracy opposition parties reverted to the official democratic processes with a dramatic election win at the end of 2015, which earned them a parliamentary vote in both houses of the House, although the army still dominates important departments.
However, there are still doubts about the roles of the army in internal matters, the way the regime treats minority groups, in particular the Rohingya Muslims, and the speed of constitution-building. Burma has been a UK settlement for over a hundred years and in 1948, one year after the murder of General Aung San, the Nazi Führer and founder of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Burma proclaimed nationalism.
Burma's Union began as a parliamentarian Democracy, like most of its new sovereign neighbours on the sub-continent of India. Burmese people made up about two third of the Burmese people, the rest comprising more than a hundred groups, with the Shan, Karen, Rakhine and Mon being among the biggest as well as important groups from India and China.
This prestigious democratic process continued until the 1962 army putsch, headed by General U Ne Win. In 1974, Ne Win introduced a new constitutional system on the basis of an isolatedist politics with a communist business programme that nationalised Burma's large corporations. Ne Win's politics caused the country's economical state to deteriorate quickly, and a dark economics soon prevailed.
Thereupon Ne Win stepped down as leader of his faction, although he stayed behind the scene, until an even more oppressive army Junta took over in September 1988. United States sanctioned [PDF] in reaction to the repression of protest and imprisonment of detainees by the regime.
By 1989, the new army regimes had transformed the country's name from the Union of Burma to the Union of Myanmar, and the capitol Rangoon was re-named Yangon. During 2005, the army rulers relocated the administration capitol to the new town of Naypyidaw. Burma's name, the Burmese people, the Burmese people, the Burmese people, the Burmese people, the Burmese people.
Even though US officials still call the state Burma, US President Barack Obama has occasionally referred to it as Myanmar during state inspections, and the differentiation between different people' s identities has often become a topic of politics. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi became head of the National League for Democracy (NLD), the most important opponent group, during the 1988 outcry.
The NLD won 392 out of 485 MPs in 1990 despite the detention of Aung San Suu Kyi. Political leaders of the NLD rejected the results, arrested many NLD leaders, exiled others and prevailed against dissidents. Aung San Suu Kyi received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991 while still under home detention.
Widely spread protest broke out in September 2007 after the army ruling cancelled oil subsidy unannounced, leading to huge inflation. Saffron revolution challenged the Burmese ruling party because the militias, most of whom live in Myanmar's Buddhist community, gave the ruling party a certain amount of ethical power. Another strike in the regime's legality was its sluggish reaction and the early blockage of global relief effort for the cyclone Nargis disaster, which in 2008 claimed more than 140,000 lives, prompted some West leader and right-wing groups to call for human assistance.
MEPs also said the June 2008 election would be followed by a multi-party election in 2010 and a popular vote on a new constitution[PDF] in May 2008. Although the unconstitutional vote won an overweight, right-wing groups named the vote fraud[PDF], according to the ruling party.
Mility-backed Union Solidarity and Development Parties (USDP) said they were well ahead in the 2010 parliamentary election, despite Aung San Suu Kyi and her NLD faction boycotting the election. Surprisingly, the 2011 Burmese Armed Forces Junior Service formally disbanded and set up a civil assembly to appoint former Armenian official and then Prime Minister Thein Sein as prime minister.
A number of top civil servants in the new regime - among them the current governor, two vice-presidents and speakers of the lower and higher chambers of this House - were former army commanders, which led to concern about the continuing militaristic hegemony. Thein Sein's regime embarked on a phase of transformation and saw the turning of socialism commitment. He led a range of policy changes, among them amnesties for most detainees, the easing of restrictions, the creation of the National Human Rights Commission and the search for freedom with the rebels.
Aung San Suu Kyi's political group declared itself ready to participate in by-elections in April 2012 to fill vacant posts between parliamentary ballots; the NLD ruled and won forty-four out of forty-six of them. The 2008 treaty provides that 25 per cent of parliamentary seat is reserved for the armed forces, and the military-backed USDP still controls seat in the mighty defence, interior and frontier missions.
In mid-2012, President Thein Sein heralded a second round of macroeconomic reform and promised to cut the government's involvement in areas such as power, forest management, healthcare, finances and telecoms. Myanmar's net FDI inflows rose from $900 million in 2010 to $2.3 billion in 2013, according to the World Bank.
Twenty-fivefold the amount of foreign direct investment they were granted in the year prior to the handover of control of the army in 2010, the March 2015 report. In the aftermath of these reform, the world authorities began to re-establish relations with Myanmar. British Prime Minister David Cameron visited Myanmar in April 2012 as the first great West German guide in twenty years.
Myanmar's economies could expand from $45 billion in 2010 to $200 billion in 2030, according to a McKinsey 2013 statement. United States first sanctioned Myanmar after the 1988 Israeli army suppression, which banned the exports of certain types of finance and the freeze of certain institutions' funds. Myanmar in 2011 was attended by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on a good will operation in which she joined President Thein Sein and Aung San Suu Kyi to strengthen the country's human resources and said that the United States would no longer obstruct International Monetary Fund and World Bank support.
US Myanmar ties were further strengthened through President Obama's November 2012 in Yangon and President Thein Sein's May 2013 in Washington. During his second trip to Myanmar for the 2014 East Asia Summit, Obama reaffirmed the US engagement in the country's policy transformation. Myanmar's democratic transformation continues to be marked by racial oppression.
After more than two years of negotiation, the regime in October 2015 concluded a national ceasefire with eight civilian groups. The Myanmar military started a large-scale attack in 2011 against the Kachin Independence Military, which fights for the independence of the Kachin people, a predominantly Christians majority of about one million, about 2 in all.
Ongoing hostilities have resulted in large-scale expulsion and humanitarian groups[PDF] have charged Myanmar's forces with mistreatment in the area, which includes hard labour, sexual assault, sexual assault, torture, the use of children's troops and mass execution. At the beginning of 2015, battles erupted in the north-east between the armed forces and several minorities militia, among them the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army of Kokang, the Ta'ang National Liberation and Arakan.
Human Rights Watch, in a 2013 Human Rights Watch reported accusing the Myanmar government of perpetrating human rights violations in an Rohingya racial cleanse drive, with a local populace of around one million. In early 2015, many of these nations ordered their fleets to reject the fleets and leave tens of thousands of them at sea. What is happening now is that the fleets have been forced into the war.
Indonesia and Malaysia, under strong political pressures, signed an agreement in May 2015 to take in immigrants who have been left behind until they can be returned to a third state. Though Myanmar has consented to bring back a smaller number of immigrants, the junta's leaders refuse to take the responsibility for the Rohingya's escape. Mr Aung San Suu Kyi is remarkably quiet about the acts of brutality and harassment.
A number of pundits claimed that dealing with the Rohingya's predicament before the 2015 referendum would not have made sense at all. Whilst Rohingya Muslims were expelled from the election and Moslem candidate Muslims were expelled in the election, the handling of Rohingya and all Buddhist-Muslim relationships in the land remains a controversial policy question.
In spite of the encouragement that Myanmar has received in recent years, the emerging challenge of governmental leadership, which includes the division of powers, persistent persecution and current reform, has been highlighted by MYMAR. November 2015 was the first multi-party national election since the first meeting of Myanmar's legislature in 2010 and was regarded as the freest and fairest election in Myanmar in 25 years.
"Conducting and the results of these polls will be a fundamental part of our commitment to the Myanmar administration in 2016 and beyond," said U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Daniel Russel in October 2015, expressing concern about the state of the country's policy liberalisation underway. However, the new administration will have difficulties meeting Myanmar's key challenges of administering its "geographically fragmented and ethnicly varied frontier areas", as the NLD cannot exercise constitutional oversight over the army, according to the Stratfor news agency.