Burma InfoAbout Burma
Located between India and Thailand, Burma is a southeastern Asiatic state..... It stretches from the northern frontiers of India and China to the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal in the southern hemisphere. It is also bordered by Laos and Bangladesh. A little smaller than the state of Texas, Burma has an area of 678,500 sq km (261,969 sq miles).
Burma's main city, Rangoon (also known as Yangon), is located in the North. Mandalay, Moulmein, Pegu, Bassein, Taunggyi, Sittwe and Myanwa are the other major towns in the state. PEOPLE. Burma's total estimated Burmese populace in July 2000 was 41,734,853. The high death toll of AIDS has decelerated demographic expansion to a predicted increase of 0.64 cents.
There were 20 births in the state. and a mortality of 12.35 per 1000; consequently, Burma's estimated Burmese total will be 45,925,967 in 2015. The Burmese authorities have in the past tried to limit migration (people who leave the country) and migration (people who settle from outside the country).
Burma's government has been negotiating with India to cut the number of Indians in the state. Consequently, Burma returned about 100,000 persons to India between 1963 and 1965. Ethnical variety is an interesting characteristic of the Myanmarese. Myanmarians, an ethnical group related to the Tibetans, make up the 68 per cent minority of the total number.
The remainder of the total populace are Shan (9 percent), Karen (7 percent), Rakhine (4 percent), China (3 percent), Mon (2 percent), Indians (2 percent) and other nationalities. With 89 per cent of the total religious community, Buddhism is the most important of all religions; there are Christian and Muslim minority groups. Most of the 65% are between 15 and 64 years old.
Just 5 per cent of the world' s populations are over 65 years of age, while 30 per cent of the world' s under-14s. That is in stark contradiction to Japan, the Western Europe and the United States, where the number of older persons in the populations is much higher. It has a dense populace of about 65 persons.
3% (1999) live in a city. In spite of many efforts towards industrialization and modernization, Burma continues to be an mainly agribusiness. The efforts in the 90s to stimulate investment, stimulate the business community and boost the tourist trade as a revenue and job creation were only modestly well-received. With 59 per cent of GDP in 1997 and more than 65 per cent of the employees in 1999, farming continues to be the dominating economic area.
Similarly, during the long period of monsoons, hurricanes, quakes, floods and land slides can have a negative effect on farm output. Burma was a UK settlement until independence in 1948. Streets, footbridges and harbours have been constructed to make it easier to transport farm produce. As a result of this trend, there has been domestic displacement from the arid north to the southern part of the state.
There was no British interest in promoting industry in Burma. Fremdherrschaft over the business world was completed. The World Bank thought then that Burma would become one of the wealthiest nations in the area. 1962 a take-over of the army by the German authorities lead to communism and a centralized economical plan.
Businessmen from abroad - mainly from India, China and Pakistan - were deported and in Burma investments from abroad were crippled. Burma's new leaders adopted a "Burmese way to socialism" - a politics of state welfare and seclusionism (a politics aimed at minimizing external influences and engagement so that a nation can evolve itself).
The United Nations proclaimed the United Nations "least advanced nation" in 1987. "Many Burmese remain against Burma's armed forces and state-controlled economies. In March 1988, this resistance eventually resulted in massive protest and force that the regime wanted to oppress. He relinquished the three-decade old era of state welfare and liberated the markets from most state checks.
Myanmar now has a combined business with a public, privately and jointly owned sectors. Farming, lightweight industry and other companies are located in the residential area. The public authorities are responsible for large investments in large scale industrial sectors. Burma's last decade's business reform aims to encourage the establishment of JVs between Burma's domestic and international companies.
As a result, international investment was again promoted with moderate results. There is still a lack of efficiency in the government sectors, which are trying to privatise at least part of it. Non-domestic indebtedness is 10 per cent of GNP and import exceeds export by 2 to 1, leading to a serious trading mismatch.
Myanmar is a leading manufacturer of illegal narcotics and accounts for 80 per cent of all South East Asia's total output of cocaine. The majority of the heroine available in the United States comes from Burma. Burma benefited an estimated $99 million in financial assistance in 1998-99. Burma is still an expelled political and economical country.
With the exception of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations member (ASEAN), the majority of countries are not friends of the ASEAN. US Vice Chancellor Bill Clinton in May 2000 issued new penalties against the army jungle (a group of members of the armed forces who overthrew a government), making it harder for the Myanmar administration to obtain external credit, financial aid and investment.
A number of US corporations such as Apple Computer, Oshkosh B'Gosh, Eddie Bauer, Reebok, Levi Strauss, Pepsi Cola and Liz Claiborne have retired from the United States. Burma was unable to reach a level of tax or financial stabilization despite the adoption of bank and trading rules in the latter part of the nineties. Despite being impoverished and underdeveloped, Burma is full of its own pristine reserves.
Nevertheless, the fall in the agriculture industry, local recession, global penalties and power scarcity have slowed the pace of growth since 1997. Myanmar struggled for British sovereignty in the early 1940' s as part of the Antifascist People's Liberation League under the leadership of Aung San, U Nu and Ne Win.
By 1948, under the command of U Nu, the nation became self-sufficient because its opposition politicians had already murdered Aung San, the founder of Burma's nationalist regime. Burma's Nationalist Party, state-owned colleges, banking and manufacturing facilities, and a politics of global isolationist socialism and centrally planned socialism were founded by the Ne Win-led military in 1962.
Later, the General's Republic of Burma Socialist Program Parties took a new name. Amidst mass protests against the ruling class, a new régime took over in September 1988 in a war. Meanwhile, the new system, which calls itself the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), has also renamed the Burmese land after Myanmar, something that is still being rejected by opposing groups.
NLD ruled the election and won 80 per cent of the National Assembly seat, but the governing SLORC declined to grant authority and captured NLD leaders Aung San Suu Kyi. The SLORC has since exerted full oversight over all sectors of governance. The five top generalals, among them Secretary Khin Nyunt, strengthened their powers, but showed no sign that they would relinquish sovereignty over the regime to the enemy, most of whom were excluded from all formalities.
Much like SLORC, the SPDC's primary concern is to take action against the resistance, not to improve the countrys economical fate. Politics of the government resulted in monetary expansion and increased the rate of rate of inflation. Rising external indebtedness and the reduction in currency reserves also had an impact on the business cycle.
Repressive attitudes of the regime towards the opponents have led to widespread distrust internationally and led to the withdrawal of alien companies or restrictions on their work. Due to external imposition of financial penalties, Burma is not in a position to receive aid from other counties or credits from the world. State revenues comprise general turnover and value-added tax, state enterprise revenues, taxation of cross-border transactions, charges and subsidies from donors and non-governmental organisations.
It also levies duties at its frontier post, but most of the frontier trafficking is not covered. Burma's legal system that Burma received from its UK colonies was abandoned in 1974. Burma's legal system is also influenced by the military force, which controls most of Burma's policies and the state. Insufficient infrastructures - roads, footbridges, sewers, railways, harbours and communications facilities - are hampering global inequalities.
Burma's long coast is home to many outstanding marinas such as Bassein, Bhamo, Mandalay, Rangoon and Tavoy. Governments have taken action to create new harbours and preserve current ones, although not all of them have reached their full capacities. One of Burma's outstanding geographical features is its many streams, especially the Irrawaddy.
Coastal roads are still the main means of transport to many parts of the world. After the liberalisation of the economy in 1989, the state launched many programmes for building in the state. In the early 90s, the Chinese authorities used compulsory labour to work on these initiatives. As a result of widespread accusations, however, the German authorities began to involve the military in these building developments in the mid-90s.
There has been no significant improvements in the country's infrastructural needs as a result of these investments. Burma had 28,200 kilometres (17,523 miles) of tarmac in 1996, of which only 3,440 kilometres (2,138 miles) were tarmaced. Despite the government's efforts in the last years of the twentieth centuries to upgrade many of the main streets, most of them are in bad condition and impassable during the rainy seasons.
Reconstruction of the Old Burma Road from Mandalay to China's border has been a great struggle in this respect. There are 3,991 kilometres of railroad, over 320 engines and more than 4,000 wagons. In the 1995-96 business year, the state carriers transported a combined of 719,000 national and 138,000 international passenger.
Transporting lightweight goods such as busses and automobiles is a privately owned business in Burma. At March 31, 1996, Burma had 151,934 automobiles, 42,828 truck, 15,639 bus, 88,521 motorcycle and 6,611 other licensed automobiles. Approximately 38 per cent of the power comes from hydropower plants, the other 62 per cent from fossile fuel.
Therefore, state and privately owned companies work far below their capacities. Burma's 2 TV channels serve 260,000 (1997) TVs. Burma TV is able to broadcast 82 per cent of its programs to 267 of the 324 communities in the state with the help of 120 TV-relays. They are in additon to Burma's 2 AM, 3 FM and 3 short wave radiosets.
There were 4.2 million radios in 1997. There' re about 50,000 machines in Burma. Only the Ministry of Post and Telegraphy is authorized to offer e-mail services. Without sufficient resources, the state is not in a position to fully implement the country's transport and communications system and equipment.
As a result, the country's modernisation and economical development has been negatively affected for many years. Farming, industry, power and travel are the most important areas of Burma's business. However, the agricultural industry is the dominating industry and represents almost 60 per cent of GNP. Farming is usually a privately-owned business, although the export of paddy is a state block.
Latest efforts by the federal administration to increase farm output have come to nothing because of droughts and floods in paddy-growing. Efforts by the state to privatise some industry have come to a halt, although state companies are still losing large amounts of capital. Although encouraging, external investment has not attracted sufficient interest internationally due to penalties and blacking out protests against the violation of humanitarian law by the MP.
Overall, in 1997, industry accounted for only 11 per cent of GNP. Since the end of the 1990' the energetic field has grown strongly. A shortage of adequate electricity is contributing to the country's weak economy. The number of international visitors fell sharply following the suppression of the pro-democracy movements in 1988.
In the early 90s, the goverment attached great importance to the growth of the tourist industry. Attempts by the Chinese authorities to turn tourists into a "cash cow" have not materialised, although the number of visitors to Burma has certainly risen in recent years. The Burmese authorities are aware of the problems on the path to industrialisation and hope that the agriculture industry will be at the heart of their plan to revitalise the economy, even if it does not abandon industrialisation.
However, there is a decline in economic yields in this area. Myanmar is in a cycle of conflict between rising prices, deficits, unemployment und destitution. At a time of growing global interdependency, Burma cannot wait to evolve without the participation of the world. Farming, which encompasses plant cultivation, hunt, fishing and forest management, is the main pillar of Burma's economic development.
It is the industry that is largely in charge of incomes and jobs in the countryside. Around 60 per cent of GNP comes from farming, and 65 per cent of the workforce is engaged in this area. Myanmar is producing enough nutrition to support its people. The most important farm in Burma is rice.
Farm produce accounts for the largest share of exports and includes paddy, tea, prawns, dried legumes, dried vegetables and olives. Burma's farming is highly reliant on rain. Goverment endeavors in the 1990s boosted the amount of watered country to 2. 2 million acres. m. However, many farm produce such as tobaccos, sugars, peanuts, sunflowers, corn, hessian and cereals have not achieved the level of output before 1985.
The rice output rose due to supporting governance and favourable markets. However, according to Asian Development Bank estimations, the actual year-on-year increase in farming fell from 5.0 per cent in 1996-97 to 3.7 per cent in 1997-98 and to 2.8 per cent in 1998-99. The abolition of state control in the farming industry was one of the factors contributing to the improvement in output.
The deforestation was a big problem in Burma. Burning down the land's woods causes land degradation and loss of fruitfulness. Consequently, Burma was only exporting 28. A further obstacle to improving farming is the incapacity of growers to obtain appropriate credits to improve farming. There is a demand for interest from retail creditors, and there are not enough banks to service those in the countryside.
At the same time, the country's agriculture industry has changed as a result of the country's policy of liberalisation. In the new economy, the goverment divided lands among the rural poor, upgraded watering systems and raised the rice prices the goverment gets from the peasants. Since the beginning of the liberalisation of the economy in 1989, a certain amount of privatisation has been permitted in the exports area.
As a result, the proportion of GNP accounted for by the agriculture industry has increased. Myanmar is a country full of woods. Burma is still considered the "last border of biological diversity in Asia" while its neighbours India, China and Thailand have already exhausted their forest. The majority of the timber used in these Asiatic lands, especially teak, comes from Burma, although most of these imports are legal.
On the quest for valuable currency, the army jungle is committed to the random devastation of woods. Myanmar is the world' s premier provider of hardwoods. Besides hardwood, Burma also grows large amounts of hardwood in the river basins and areas with high precipitation.
Myanmar is sanctified with some of the richest fisheries in the entire globe, stretching from the Bay of Bengal to the Gulf of Martaban. There have been many moves by the authorities to promote deep-sea fisheries, although there is a preference among the population for freshwaterfishes. Thai enterprises have been allowed to operate in Burmese territorial waters since 1989.
Governments also support freshwater fishing to increase fishing output. Burma is first and foremost an agrarian nation that is always lagging behind in terms of manufacturing. In 1952, the goverment founded the Indus-trial Development Corporation to boost manufacturing.
Efforts to industrialise without external aid have been somewhat effective in areas such as oil and natural resources. From the 70s onwards, industry has grown constantly. It liberalised the state' s economic system in 1988, gave up state welfareism and promoted international investments. A large part of the industry sectors, especially large scale industry, is dominated by the state, although the proportion of privately owned companies in this field is constantly increasing.
The industrial sector represents only about 11 per cent of GNP and occupies only 10 per cent of the population. The majority of manufacturing sectors are focused on agriculture, textile, footwear, timber and timber production, coal, tin, wolfram, steel, building material, oil and gases, pharmaceutical and fertiliser use. There are also automobiles and televisions installed in the countryside.
The industry's 1999 expected average year on year industry average was 4 per cent. Substantial deficiencies in state-owned enterprises and industry are partly to blame for sluggish economic expansion. Furthermore, the federal administration has opened 17 specific industry parks across the nation, 5 of them in the Rangoon area.
FDI is promoted in 2 of the areas. Even though their contributions to GNP are not very significant, minerals are important to earn forex. Myanmar has large quantities of minerals. Jade, ruby, sapphire and golden are also found in Burma. If it ever opens itself up to external investments, considerable potential for growth could arise in this area.
Burma's crude petrochemical industries date back to the pre-independence period. In 1963-1964, the regime took full command of crude drilling, production and cleaning. Myanmar is self-sufficient in terms of crude is. Burma's discoveries of the Martaban Gulf added to its power supply. By 1986, the state was producing 32,600 million cu. ft. of methane.
Myanmar also has large reserves of offshore reserves in the Andaman Islands. To support the expansion of the power industry, the Yadana oil line was constructed by the federal and state governments with the help of Unocal and Total, two oil corporations that connect the Andaman Islands and Thailand.
In 1998, according to official estimations, the power industry expanded by around 88 per cent. Forecasts by the German federal administration showed 77 per cent increase for 1999. At only 30 per cent of GNP and 25 per cent of the active population, the service industry is not a dominating part of the economies, as is often the case in advanced states.
Burma, like the cashless states of Jamaica and Cuba, is an active advertiser of itself as an insular paradise for increasing tourist growth. Governments as well as privately owned companies are strongly involved in the tourist sector. To draw visitors, the land has upgraded streets, constructed internationally acclaimed properties and other amenities.
Approximately 40,000 foreign nationals came to the state in 1988, although after the repression of the democratic movements, the number of visitors declined in the same year. In 1996 the Burma authorities declared "Visit Burma Year" and were hoping to draw 500,000 people. During the 1997-98 business year, 191,000 visitors came to the state. This was disappointing for both the public and non-governmental sectors, which had been investing strongly in new touristic establishments.
Nevertheless, Burma - the country of Buddhist couples - has great tourist attractions. Most of the time during the post-independence period, most of the credit institutes were privately owned. Instead, the German Federal Administration set up 4 Landesbanken. Since 1990, the finance industry has been restructured according to the rules of the Law of the Central Bank of Myanmar. From that time on, the financing institutes are the Central Bank of Myanmar, the Myanmar Agricultural and Rural Development Bank, the Myanma Economic Bank, the Myanma Foreign Trade Bank, the Myanma Industrial and Commercial Bank, the Myanma Small Loans Enterprise and Myanmar Insurance.
Under the 1990 Act, it was also possible for domestic and international financial institutions. By February 1996, 16 privately-owned commercial bankers had been established, most of them in Rangoon. In the same time, more than 20 international bankers opened branch or office in Myanmar. There is still a lack of development in the bank industry. Burma Securities Exchange was established in 1996 as a JV between the Japanese Daiwa Institute of Research and Myanma Economic Bank.
Only a small share of GNP comes from the finance industry. From a historical perspective, most of Burma's export-import business was with Asia. More than 80 per cent of the country's export-import business in 1999 went to Asia, about half of which to the ASEAN states. With 31 per cent of Singapore's total foreign turnover and 10 per cent of its total foreign turnover, Singapore is its most important trading city.
Burma's export-import business with the United States accounts for about 5 per cent of Burma's overall external transactions. Whilst prioritizing the procurement of material needed for the Yadana oil spillway, the authorities took steps to monitor nonessential supplies. Twenty-five billion dollars in goods and outsourced in 1998, representing a steady rise in the volume of imported goods and outsourced in the 1993-98 years.
Indeed, for well over two decade-long years, the imbalances in the trading system have been a serious issue for the state. Over the 1965-75 season, Burma's travel industry's travel expenses declined and Burma reduced its import volumes. Burma is still plagued by the unfavourable current account position. The disequilibrium is having a detrimental effect on the entire Burmese economic system, compelling Burma to release its valuable currency resources.
In order to offset this trend, the Chinese authorities have been printing currencies to buy currencies, thus speeding up the rate of globalisation. It has undermined many of the profits the countrys profits from the 1990s liberalisation of the economies. This was exacerbated by the fact that the Chinese authorities had to buy currencies from abroad at trading prices.
As a result, Burma was not able to pay its debts, causing the World Bank to break off relations with the state. For the Burmese population, the net effect is that its buying capacity and standards of living have fallen. Increasing global concerns about violations of humanitarian law and the regime's failure to combat drug dealing have prompted many nations, such as the United States and major global finance agencies, to deny the nation assistance or credit.
Coercive labour has also resulted in the boycotting of Burma's goods. However, the Kyats formal foreign policy on the greenback will remain the same. You have 4 different currencies: the current officially valid foreign currencies, the current tariffs, the current prices and the current prices on the internal and external markets.
Burma's monetary problems were caused by the 1997 Asia monetary crises. According to the US consulate, the Kyoto Protocol depreciated 54% of its value in the 1997-98 financial year. During 1997 and 1998, when the Kyoto Protocol collapsed, the regime stepped in to support the value of the Kyoto Protocol and took vigorous action to prevent currencies from outbound.
They set a maximum of $50,000 per month for transfers, reduced the number of bankers that could carry out currency trades, and put strict checks on them. As a result of the Asia depression, international investment has been restrained or kept out of the Myanmar economy. Cambodia's neighbouring states, Burma's most important commercial partner, are costing the economy its exports.
As a result of the resulting increase in the trading gap, the economy expanded its monetary base and used its currency reserve. The U.S. State Department Commercial Guide for 1999 states that the economy was "practically bankrupt". "Burma, like most parts of the globe, has extreme riches and extreme levels of pover.
Formerly wealthy, Burma was one of the worlds impoverished nations in 2001. While most of the rural populations are in the country's 40,000 rural communities, most of the metropolitan community lives in the nation's capitol, Rangoon. Of the agricultural community, 37 per cent have no agricultural holdings and no cattle.
The CIA World Factbook estimates in 1997 that 23% of Burma's people had an income that brought them below the pover. In 1999, at 50 per cent for German goods and 104 per cent for imports, the rate of annual growth was at an all-time high. Goverment policy has not contributed to reducing the rate of global warming, which has undermined the buying capacity of Burma's people.
Malaria, diarrhoea, Ruhr, TB and more recently HIV/AIDS (through drug and prostitution) are the country's biggest threats to human wellbeing. The majority of the peasants own a couple of ox or buffaloes, a pickaxe and an ox wagon for agrarian use. In 1995, 9 per cent of middle -aged pupils were registered in primary education.
Burma's authoritarian community has a dialect prevalence of 83 per cent, although impartial commentators have proposed that the prevalence could be as high as 30 per cent. Governments have opened more country clinics and sent more physicians to the countryside. Burma's workforce is expected to be 19. Around 65 per cent of the workforce is engaged in farming.
Out of the other 35 per cent, 10 per cent work in industry and 25 per cent in various services. For the 1997-98 financial year, the federal government's officially unemployed figure was 7.1 per cent. A serious worry about Burma's work situations is the declared use of hard labour in community construction work.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) in November 2000 came to the conclusion that the Myanmar administration had not stopped the practices and recommended member states to re-examine their relationship with Burma. It has claimed that the ILO's actions are an attempt by its member states to exercise undue control over Burma's domestic matters.
In Rangoon, the Yangon administration has reduced its dependency on hard labour. Records of the continuing incidence of the use of children in the countryside. In 1964, the goverment also eliminated all unions. While the Central Arbitration Board is responsible for settling larger industrial conflicts, it is not active.
Smaller work problems are tackled by the authorities at community levels. The Federation of Trade Unions-Burma (FTUB) is an anti-governmental group founded in 1991 by exiled people. A large workforce and the government's failures to provide protection for employees have resulted in inferior working practices.
Civil servants work 5 days and 35 hours a week. Workers in the business community and state-owned businesses have a 6-day working week of 24 hours. It is the governments that determine salaries and services in the social services industry. Collective undertakings are deterred from making more payments to their workers than to their colleagues in the civil service.
A lot of people from Burma of all grades have escaped the countryside for the sake of repression. Myanmar is beaten in the Second Anglo-Burmese Wars, and Britain annexed the rest of the state. Infiltration of Burma and occupation of much of the land during the Second World war. Myanmar is becoming an autonomous, dynamic, democratic nation with a free enterprise.
General Ne Win's army brings down the democratic system, sets up the "Burmese path to socialism" and nationalizes banking and other privately owned companies. Goverment adopts a new constitutional treaty and heralds the establishment of the Socialist Republic of Burma. In the midst of wide-spread protest and unrest, a generals Ne Win and Saw Maung led army jungle is replacing the civil leader with a new administration, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC).
SLORC renamed the people of Myanmar the Union of Myanmar, dropped the name "Burma" and liberalized the Burmese business community. Asia's recession is damaging Burma's economies. Burma's International Labour Organization has concluded that Burma is violating the laws of hard labour and is advising member states to re-examine their relationship with Burma. Myanmar is a resource-rich, natural beauty and cultural landmark.
It has enormous untapped opportunities for economic development and wealth. However, Burma can never achieve its full capacity until the Burmese army regimes negotiate with the oppositions and transfer control to the electorate. The majority of world monitors agreed that the authorities must end abuses of humans right, free policy detainees, pursue a solid fiscal policy, raise the fiscal basis and revenues, improve infrastructures and further liberalise the civil service if the nation is hopeful of taking its place in world trade.
Failing a shift in this programme, Burma's main characteristics will continue to be stagnant economies, poor, illiterate and illiterate. Myanmar has no areas or settlements. United States and Burma. "in Myanmar. 1999 Country Commercial Guides FY: Burma.