Burma BurmeseBurmese Burmese
Burma: Myanmar Etiquette Tourist Information and Counselling
Travellers will soon feel truly alien when they first see Burma and will quickly be overpowered by the Burmese serenity. It is a pleasure to watch these real, spontaneous and slightly smiling humans and don't miss to observe their habits. That also applies when you see many young men in Yangon who go together and kiss secretly.
Therefore, you should be dressed correctly and not wearing any informative clothing when you visit Burma. Woman, however, are asked to carry a scarf over their shoulder and trousers or a longgyi before they enter places of worship. The Burmese may be shocked or disrespected by some behaviour. Do not hesitate to ask your leader or the Burmese nation about their practices.
Myanmar's (Burma) army past stretches over a thousand years and is one of the major determinants of the country's and to a smaller extent its neighbours' own past. From Bengal, Manipur and Assam in the western part, through Yunnan (southern China) in the northeastern part, to Laos and Siam in the eastern and southeastern parts of Burma's border, Burmese empires have also been at war with their neighboring states at different periods in Burma's recent past.....
Burma's Royal Army was an important South East Asia army between the eleventh and thirteenth Century and between the sixteenth and nineteenth Century. This is the most important thing in the nineteenth and twentieth century, when the Toungoo emperors established the greatest empire in the annals of South East Asia. The war between Burma and Siam (1547-1855) marked not only the histories of both lands, but also those of the South East Asia continent.
High Militarist Konbaung Monarchs had established the biggest empire on the continent of Southeast Asia in the eighteenth and early nineteenth-centuries before meeting the British in what is now North-East India. Early naval aviation is still fragmented. Tibeto-Burman ic-speaking Pyu, the oldest inhabitant of the Irrawaddy River basin in ancient times, established several city-states that were established between the 1. c. and the early 9. mill. years.
After the Nanzhao roundups, another Tibetan-Burmese language tribe, the Mranma (Burmans or Bamar), who came down with the Nanzhao roundups, began to populate the Irrawaddy Valley, near the junction of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin Stream. Burmese established a small walled town of Pagan (Bagan) around 849, probably to help the Nanzhao peace the area.
7 ] The early pagan armies were mainly composed of draftees who were reared shortly before or during the uprising. Later the pagan armies became known to the whole wide globe for their elephant warriors, as Marco Polo told us. Pagan's power grew further, culminating in the time of King Narapatisithu (r. 1174-1211).
In 1174 the emperor established the Royal Palace Guard, the first surviving note of a stationary military. Pagan's impact extended further southwards to the Upside Malaysia and at least to the Salween Rivers to theheast, below the present Chinese frontier to the far North and the Chin Hills to the Wests.
He was confronted with uprisings in the Macchagiri state (now Kyaukpyu District) in the western part and Martaban (Mottama) in the southern part. More recent research shows that the Mongolian army may not have touched the pagans themselves, and that even if they did, the harm they did was probably minor. Wareru, the man who had taken over the governorate of Martaban in 1281, consolidates the monolingual areas of Lower Burma in the southern part and declares Ramannadesa (country of the Mon) to be autonomous.
While the Mongols went away, the Shan tribe, which had perished with the Mongols, did not remain four hundred years behind the Burmese who had perished with the Nanzhao incursions. Shans constructed a number of small states throughout the northwest to east arch of downtown Burma, encirclement.
From 1359, the most mighty state of Mogaung Shaan (in today's Kachin state) began a string of ongoing attacks on mainland Burma. By 1364, his troops had plundered both Legaing and Pinya one by one, leaving the spoils behind. That same year, Thado Minbya, a legendary princess, appeared to reunite Upper Burma and established the Ava Kingdom.
Nevertheless, the attacks by the Shaan in Upper Burma continue in phases. They were raided by different states at different periods. Trying to establish order in the unrestrained states of the River Han also turned out to be a problem for the Sinsi. China's forces unsuccessfully pursued rebel Shans who just came back as the China forces were leaving.
They even hunted the Shan insurgents into Burmese soil and only went after the Burmese abandoned the chief's cadaver. In the face of more urgent rebellion elsewhere, the Ming administration gave up trying to establish the empire in the border areas of Yunnan and had to be satisfied with tributes of nominals.
The Shan states would keep their area until the middle of the 16th cent. Sukhothai' s relations with the south of the empire were from the outset an opportunist package intended for the case of overburma. Wareru comfortably asked for approval directly from the Mongolian Empire as governor in March 1298, only four years after he became a minion of Sukhothai, when upper Burma stopped being a terror.
Nevertheless, the empire remains divided into three centers of power: the Irrawaddy River Valley in the western, Pegu in the center and Martaban in the south-east, each with its own chieftain, who promised nominally loyal to the High-Royalty. 1363 Martaban rebelled and survived Pegu's army. The Shan state of Kale (Kalay) became a creek in the northeast in 1371.
Eva's western side became crown prince in 1374. However, in the early fifteenth century, when Eve's new Minkhaung I. was confronted with several revolts, Razadarit entered the interior with a great maritime alliance. At the end of 1406 his army had taken Arakan in the western and Mohnyin in the northern part.
It also persuaded the Shan state of Theinni (Hsvenvi) to invade the city from the south. In 1410 he began to win the day under the command of Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa. In 1413 Minye Kyawswa beat Theinni and his China Forces.
Secured on the back, the Duke conquered Hanthawaddy Land in full strength in 1414. Every rebellion occurred every year a new king came to office. He would have to restore his sovereignty by becoming loyal to all minion states, mostly through the use of violence.
Minkhaung II was welcomed with a large number of revolts, but this was different. Eva's minion shaan states Mohnyin, Mogaung, Momeik and Kale also separated in the 1490'. Tabinshwehti came to rule in 1530 and Toungoo was now the only Burmese governed empire encircled by much bigger empires.
Rather than recognizing Bayinnaung as the next King, all the kingdom's governing bodies, with Bayinnaung's own relatives, founded their own feud. Then Bayinnaung was planning to stick to the home states of the Confederation to avoid further Shan roundups in Upper Burma. He was able to deploy a large force of 24,000 men, 1,200 horsemen and 60 1111s with the whole Irrawaddy River Basin under his con. He was able to invade the Shan States in January 1557.
After each other, you can see the minimum drag of each. Until March 1557 Bayinnaung suddenly took control of all cis-Salween (Thanlwin) Shang states from the Patkai Mountains on the north west Persian frontier to Mohnyin (Mong Yang), Mogaung (Mong Kawng) in today's Kachin state to Momeik (Mong Mit) Thibaw (Hsipaw) and Mone (Mong Nai) in the west.
On April 2, 1558, the sovereign of Lan Na gave himself up without a struggle. Now Bayinnaung was looking at Siam, which successfully fended off the first Burmese in 1547-1549. Aware that Siam is much more challenging than Siamese and Lan Na campaigning, Bayinnaung put together the biggest force yet - 60,000 men, 2,400 steeds and 360 elephants, two and a half time bigger than his first high.
Mekuti, the sovereign of Chiang Mai, did not submit his part of the fee. At the beginning of 1568 the captured Thai Maha Chakkraphat, who had become a friar, successfully persuaded Bayinnaung to allow him to return to Ayutthaya. In May 30, 1568, a distressed Bayinnaung sent an army of 6,000 men to strengthen the defense of Phitsanulok, whose sovereign had stayed with him.
Pitsanulok resisted the besiege by Siam and Lan Xang troops until October, when the siegers retreated to prevent what was to come. Fifty-five thousand Burmese troops reached Pitsanulok on November 27, 1568. 70 ] Fortified in Pitsanulok, 70,000 troops invaded Ayutthaya and besieged the town in December 1568.
71 ] Setthathirath tried to stop the besiegement, but his forces were badly beaten north-east of the town on April 23, 1569. 71 ] Bayinnaung made Maha Thammaracha, the vice-council of Phitsanulok, minion on September 30, 1569. 74 ] Burmese domination would only be questioned for another 15 years after Bayinnaung's deaths.
Bayinnaung sent a large army of invading troops on 9 September 1580 to take Arakan, which was not yet part of his kingdom, to the greatest kingdom in the entirety of Southeast Asia. 77 ] The united armed services (24,000 men, 1,200 horsemen, 120 1100 electrons, 1,300 ships) took Sandoway with ease, but did not move on and waited for the king's orders.
After Bayinnaung's deaths in November 1581, the invading troops retreated. Myanmar historians say Swa was killed in a round of Thai mortars. Swa' s 12,000-strong force could not take a strongly strong-armed Lampang and had to retreat in June. Nanda herself commanded an armies of 25,000 men on October 19, 1586 and marched in again.
The Burmese withdrew in April 1587 after several unsuccessful assaults on the strongly stronghold Ayutthaya, after suffering severe losses. 82 ] The failings in Siam began to impair Pegu's capacity to cling to other areas. In the Shan states, in Inya (1587-1588) and in Mogaung (1590-1592) there were further uprisings.
The 20,000-strong Mingyi Swa military marched back in December 1590. As Naresuan and his Thai armies appeared in Pegu to join the free-for-all, they found a smouldering town where the booty had already been taken away. However, its supplies were severed from behind by the Arakanese and forced the Thai monarch to retreat on 6 May 1600.
The Thai troops sustained severe casualties in the withdrawal. 91 ] It was the last infiltration of Burma by the Sistamese. In 1603, Arakan died in the harbour town of Syriam in Lower Burma when its portugese gubernator Filipe de Brito e Nicote said that he was now faithful to the vice-king of Goa.
Arakan abandoned its claim on the coast of Lower Burma after two unsuccessful journeys by the Macanese marines to reclaim the harbour in 1604 and 1605. A Bayinnaung son, Nyaungyan, immediately began reuniting and successfully re-established command over Upper Burma and the Shan states until 1606. Nyaungyan's follower Anaukpetlun had rebuilt Bayinnaung's kingdom (except Siam and Lan Xang) until 1624.
Then Nyaungyan acquired back closer states. It conquered Nyaungshwe in February 1601 and the great Shaan state of Mone in July 1603 and brought its empire to the Siam Lan Na border In reaction, Naresuan of Siam March of early 1605 to assault Mone, but passed away on the April frontier, after which Siam stopped being a Burmese war.
At the beginning of 1606 his 7,000-strong troops took Theinni, Thibaw and Momeik, but the emperor passed away during the expedition on March 3, 1606. The Siamese would make no attempt to save Lan Na until 1663. Solely Siam and Lan Xang stayed outside the restored Toungoo empire. The Burmese wouldn't overtax themselves again.
Burma became involved in the dynasty changes in China in the 1650'. Ming troops who fled Qing troops invaded Kengyun (east of Bhamo) in 1651, which had taken its toll on both China and Burma. In October 1651 King Pindale sent five regents to the front. However, the Ming pushed the armies back in December 1651.
The Burmese gubernatorial leader of Lan Na was murdered for high taxes in October 1727. There was an armies rush over Mone to Chiang Mai. After a violent struggle, the military recaptured the town. However, the military was attacked by the revolts when the forces evacuated the town in early 1728.
Between 1735 and 1741, the Manipuris invaded the upper Chindwin region, ever lower with each invasion. The Burmese defense was circumvented on the back of the Manipuris. Burma's defense eventually halted it in Myedu in early 1741, with each side accepting an uncomfortable ceasefire. Following the overthrow of Ava, many sovereign opposition groups emerged in a panic-stricken upper Burma.
But Hanthawaddy forces abandoned less than 10,000 soldiers to bring peace to all of Upper Burma. The Konbaung dynasty was quickly established by Alaungpaya, who quickly became the chief resistant commander and conquered all of Upper Burma until the end of 1753, taking full use of the low strength of Hanthawaddy's Forces.
In 1754 Hanthawaddy started a complete infasion, but it came to a halt. In January 1755, Conbaung troops entered Lower Burma and conquered the Irrawaddy River and Dagon (Yangon) in May. In 1763, with the help of the English East India Company, he entered Manipur, but was pushed back by Hsinbyushin in early 1764. Until 1759 Alaungpaya had reunited all of Burma as well as Manipur and Lan Na.
Initially worried about the ascendant might of the restored Hanthawaddy, the Siamese now began to support the Mon rebel tribes on the top Tenasserims. By December 1759, Alaungpaya and his 40,000 soldiers had entered the Tenasserim coastline. However, just five and a half day after the besiege, the Burmese monarch became ill and the Burmese retreated.
It was three a fortnight later that the emperor passed away and ended the fighting. Though Burma had reconquered the High Tenasserim to Tavoy, they still had to cope with the Siamese-backed uprisings in Lan Na (1761-1763) and Tavoy (1764). Wars recommenced in August 1765, when two Burmese troops marched into the Thai capitol in a tweezers-move.
Burma's army took Ayutthaya in April 1767 after a 14-month seige. Burma's army has looted the town, committing horrors that continue to affect Burmese Thai ties today. A few month later the Burmese had to retreat because of the invasion of their home country by China. However, Burma had conquered the lower Tenasserim coastline.
In the inter-Siam War, Burma purchased the Lao states of Vientiane and Luang Prabang. was to outstrip Siam in its imminent incursion. Burmese affluents stayed in Laos until 1778. Chiang Mai was captured by the insurgents on January 15, 1775 and the Burmese authorities were overthrown. 135 ] In November 1775, two Burmese army of 35,000 men were to march into Lan Na and Siam.
However, due to a rebellion by a commander-in-chief, the south' s forces suffered a considerable loss. Other Burmese forces were fighting their way in. of Chiang Mai, albeit at great expense, and the South took Sukhothai and Phitsanulok in the centre of Siam.
The invading powers, however, were too small to defeat the Thai defence and were stuck. In June 1776, the army retreated after Hsinbyushin passed away. Former Manipuri emperor Jai Singh, last expelled by the Burmese in 1770, made four further expulsions between 1775 and 1782 of the Burmese candidate from his basis in Cachar.
Every single one the Burmese pushed him back, but they couldn't catch him. In Cachar and Jaintia, the military achieved "meagre victories", where the Raja of the two small states declared their willingness to make a symbolic toll. However, the toll came at a high price: the Armed Forces sacrificed 20,000 men, some of them due to fevers over the years.
138 ] After Singu's deposition in 1782, the new Bodawpaya brought the incursions to a halt. On January 19, 1785, the Konbaung troops took out therakanese symbols from Mrauk-U. Just a few month after Arakan, in early 1785, he sent an expeditionary troop to take Junkceylon (Phuket) to stop supplies of weapons to Siam, but the invading troops were pushed back.
It was in mid-October 1785 that he started a four-stage attack on Chiang Mai, Tak, Kanchanaburi and Junkceylon. It was a complete catastrophe because the rush to invade had not made adequate provision for transport or supply. Apart from the forces of the North, which Chiang Mai captured and blew down to Lampang, the Areas of the South were pushed back or in one case almost destroyed.
At the end of January 1786, the invading army retreated into disorder. 142 ] The loss was so great that the Siamese were invaded by Burma for the last time. Unfortunate with the arrangements, Singh changed his loyalty to the British in April 1821 and tried to expel the Burmese.
In September 1821, his first assault on the Burmese military in Gauhati was unsuccessful. But, strengthened by Britain's weapons and staff, Singh took Gauhati in January 1822 and walked to Jorhat. However, the capitol had been strengthened by a 20,000-strong force under the leadership of Bandula, who had just come in. During the years before the First Anglo-Burmese War, the killed emperor escaped into Britain and carried out further roundups.
Until 1822 the Manipur and Assam conquest had marked a long frontier between Britain-India and Burma. In Calcutta the Brits had their own plans for the area, and were active in supporting rebellion in Manipur, Assam and Arakan. Kolkata one-sidedly explained Cachar and Jaintia Britain's protectorate, and sent in forces.
The Burmese were annoyed by cross-border attacks in Arakan, Manipur and from UK areas. 153 ] In January 1824, Bandula had Burmese forces invade Cachar and Jaintia to pursue the revolution. They sent their own troupe to hit the Burmese in Cachar, which led to the first clash between the two.
Initially, the battle-hardened Burmese armed services were able to drive back the UK armed services in Cachar, Jaintia and East Bengal. 154 ] Instead of struggling in the arduous territory that was "a major barrier to the deployment of a Euro troop ", the Brits brought the struggle to the Burmese continent. May 11, 1824, a UK maritime army of 11,000 men took Rangoon (Yangon) and surprised the Burmese.
Burma's armed services tried several attempts to reclaim the town, but fail. Bandula was killed in the Danubyu war in April 1825, and the Brits went to Prome. While the Burmese tried to recapture Prome in one last desperate effort, they were pushed back in December. The Burmese had to accept the UK conditions without debate on 24 February 1826.
Under the Yandabo Treaty, Burma was obliged to surrender Arakan, Manipur, Assam and Tenasserim and receive a high compensation of one million a year. Watercolour painting by 3 Burmese infantrymen in 1855. During the early 1870s, the Brits again observed Burma's northern areas, this year the Karenni states, which were the most southern part of the Shan states and governed by their inherited Shan-Sawbwas.
Mindon had to dispatch forces in 1873 to suppress a Brit-backed uprising. They were relentless and demanded that Mandalay recognize the "independence" of the Karenni states and that everything else is seen as an act of military action. In the face of a certain loss, the emperor decided to take a "bitter pill" and in March 1875 he autographed the area.
Burmese forces left the country by contract, but Britain's forces stayed in the new "independent" territories, which caused Mindon to suffer a loss of notoriety. 166 ] (In fact, the Britons would comfortably abandon the pretext of Karenni independence in 1892 after the Third Anglo-Burmese War). 1885 the Brits tried to annex the remainder of the empire.
The Burmese were worried about Burma's attempts to enter into an agreement with the people of France, who consolidated their stakes in Indochina, near France. Myanmar tried to follow the same policy as Siam, as a puffer between the Brits and the France. However, the Brits saw Burma as their realm of control and sent an invading troop on November 7, 1885.
Infiltrators slightly outdid Burma's minimum opposition and took Mandalay on November 29, 1885. Burmese Mount Thibaw and the Burmese kings were deported to India. Myanmar was officially invaded by the Brits on January 1, 1886. Burma's millennia-old empire was over. They used dominant forces from India and the UK to recklessly defeat the country's ethnical majorities, such as the Saya San peasants' revolt in 1930-1931.
Several of the early uprisings were carried out by Burmese-dominated "colorful" left wing and the Karen National Union (KNU). KNU was fighting for the formation of an autonomous Karen state from large parts of Lower Burma. The uprisings were (were) backed or used by overseas states, increasing the Burmese's insulation, mistrust and concerns about both their minority groups and their overseas power.
Several British had backed the Karen; East Pakistan (and then Bangladesh) backed the Muslim Rohingyas on their frontier with support from the Mideast. Before the ceasefire, the largely Burmese dominant troops conducted vain yearly drought campaigning just to see the insurgents returning after their departure. Burmese dominant federal government (civil or military) failed to achieve consensus, although the declared aim of most, if not all, of the great national revolts (including the KNU) is independence and not secession. However, the Burmese government has been unable to do so.
Today, the regime has been signing uncomfortable cease-fire deals with most rebel groups, but the military has not won the confidence of the people. It has been widely blamed for abusing the indigenous populations with impunity and is considered an occupation power in the ethnical world. Calamindin: Member of 68 companions, commandant of Fort Kaungton during the Sino-Burmese War of the eighteenth cen.
Since the Tungoo troops did not completely evacuate the south of Arakan until the end of March 1547, Tabinshwehti probably sent the mission around November 1547 after the rainfall. It is probable that the conflict ended in February 1549, when per (His Lwin Lay 2006: 232) the Emperor returned to Pegu on March 1, 1549 (3rd growth of Latte Tagu 910 ME).
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