Burma BackgroundMyanmar Background
The Burmese military and civil society
Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, is the biggest union in Southeast Asia. Myanmar, an autonomous country, has gone through various army regulations and a number of democratic movement since January 1948. As in other Southeast Asian buddhistic lands, the educational system is modelled on the country monastery system, where the Sayadaws (abbots) are teaching the fundamental three R' s and crafts for any age.
Myanmar is one of the most educated nations in the area, with a long and intriguing tradition of monastery study and contemporary schooling. Myanmar, with a level of illiteracy of around 80 per cent, despite many military set-backs, rightly asserts to be an educated guide among many of the most deprived Third World states. Burma is an activist part of the UNESCO-led "Education for All" campaign known as EFA2000.
Formation in Myanmar (then Burma) was settled until 1948, which was widely criticised by the rulers of the liberation movements. In 1947, the report of the Committee for the Reconstruction of Literacy contained a broad range of reform of schooling, including bi-lingual syllabuses, professional development and healthcare upbringing. The Burmese authorities issued a declaration on Burma's post-independence 1948-1962 policies on learning, free learning in state colleges, the use of Burmese as a teaching language, while English is allowed at the collegiate levels, and the production of new text books that underscore the essence of the country's nationalist culture.
Burma's education system was heavily centralised under Burma's army government (1962-1988). The government of General Ne Win used the colleges as an instrument of policy indotrination. Whilst the army leaders emphasised the importance of sciences and engineering, the syllabuses of colleges and universities were monitored and teaching was not possible in a free milieu. Formerly an economic and education leader in Southeast Asia, Burma was named a "Least Developed Country" by the United Nations in 1987.
Burma adopted a new nationalist name in 1989, Myanmar. After all, in the years 1988-2000, known as a time of" democratisation under political control", the education system in Myanmar has stayed shamble. Aung San Suu Kyi's political group won a crucial win in the first free multi-party election, but the army declined to give up its power.
Many of the undergraduate and teacher leaders of the democratisation movements have been silence or imprisoned, and many higher education institutions and academies have been regularly closed down.