sspan class="mw-headline" id="History">History
It houses the oldest Roman Catholic Church diocese in Portugal and is the headquarters of the Archbishop of Portugal and Hispania (with the last name - "Hispania" - with the Archbishop of Toledo and the Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela). Today Braga is an important junction for northern Portugal in the interior.
Braga's mid-19th centruy outline. The Braga area has been inhabited by humans for millennia, as evidenced by the remains of megalithic monuments. Bracara Augusta grew strongly in the 1. cent. and achieved its maximal expansion around the 2. cent.
At the end of the third millennium, the Emperor Diocletian turned the town into the capitol of the Conventus breacarensis, the south-western part of the recently established Gallaecia area. There were no heretics of Arians or Precilians during two of the Synods that took place here in the sixth centuary.
At the beginning of the fifth millennium, Paulus Orosius (a good friend of Augustine of Hippo) composed several works of theology explaining the beliefs of Christianity, while Bishop Martin of Braga in the sixth millennium transformed the original heathen Suebi and Visigoths from Arianism to Catholicism. Martin also established an important convent in Dumio (Dume), and in Braga the archbishopric of Braga kept its councillors.
At the beginning of the eighth millennium, the Moors briefly conquered Braga, but in 868, under Alfonso III of Asturias, they were fended off by Christians with sporadic attack, until they were finally displaced in 1040 by Ferdinand I of León and Castile. Consequently, the diocese was rebuilt in 1070: the first new episcopal see, Pedro (Peter), began the reconstruction of the cathedral (which was rebuilt several times in the following centuries).
Braga became the residence of the Portugese royal family between 1093 and 1147. At the beginning of the twelfth millennium, Count Henry of Portugal and Archbishop Geraldo de Moissac regained the archbishop's office for Braga, which was in large measure in Iberia. During the Reconquista (until the birth of Santiago de Compostela and later the Muslim invasion of Toledo in 1085), Braga, as the principal centre of Christianity in Iberia, maintained a leading position in mediaeval policy and was an important factor/contribution to the independence of Portugal with the help of Archbishop D.
It was not until the sixties that the relicts came back to Braga. Braga in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, due to its remoteness from the shore and the province's state, did not benefit from the adventure of the age of discoveries in Portugal (which preferred towns such as Lisbon, Évora and Coimbra, seat of the Portugese court).
There was a similar era of regeneration in the eighteenth and eighteenth centuries, when the Braganza House bishops commissioned architect André Soares and Carlos Amarante to modernise and regenerate the town, and began a process of architectonic changes to Baroque architecture in towns houses and civil buildings, such as the Town Council, the Civil Libraries, the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte and many of the town's mansions.
But in the second half of this last decade, with the influx of Brazilian Portuguese migrants, new funds and flavours led to architectural and infrastructure improvement. Situated on the road to St. James in Portugal. Braga experienced similar phases of economic expansion and contraction in the twentieth centuries; the pressure of demographics and cities to migrate from the cities to the countryside necessitated an improvement in the city's infrastructure to meet the increased needs.
It has a Mediterranean temperate zone (Köppen Csb) similar to other towns on the northwestern Iberian peninsula, except that the temperature in summers is much higher due to the proximity of the sea: the highest temperature is up to 5°C above the neighboring A Coruña or Santiago de Compostela.
Most of the inhabitants are concentrated in the city of Braga itself, where the density is more than 10000 per sq km. Even though the area has its own aerodrome (Aerodromo de Braga) on Palmeira, the main Sá Carneiro International airport in Porto is 50 kilometers away.
It is served by both a local and a high-speed link with the main centers of the area. Braga territory is dotted with Neolithic, Roman, mediaeval and modernist sights, as well as tourist attractions. Falcões ( Portuguese: Palácio Dos Falcões/Governo Civil de Braga), a building from the Barcelona period, initially built by Francisco de Meira Carrilho on 23 July 1703 and later used by the Civil Governor's residency in subsequent renovation works; Fountain of the Idol (Portuguese:
Ídolo ), the 1. cent ury-old romantic spring devoted to an indigene deity, situated in the centre of the São José de São Lázaro civic vicarage; water spring of the water of Jesus (Portuguese: Águas Férreas), after iron-rich sources had been discovered in the municipality of Fraião in July 1173, Archbishop Gaspar de Bragança ordered the local government to begin the sewerage of this water for communal use, which led to a number of wells, such as the Baroque decorative principal well; the São Marcos Clinic (Portuguese):
São Marcos Hospital), with a facade that is similar to any church memorial in the town, is the São Marcos Hotel, an example of the complexity of Carlos Amarante's Barcelona styles, with adorned twin bells and highlights; Raio House (Portuguese: It is the Palácio de Raio (Raio Palace), an 18th-century municipal centre with Andre Soares' lavishly adorned facades of red painted glass and red painted houses; the Casas the Gelosias/Casa dos Crivos (Residence of the Crivos), a Renaissance retail centre built outside the old Renaissance wall, one of the few example of a wooden grid facade dating from this time.
The Seven Sources Aqueduct (Portuguese: Sete Fontes), a comprehensive aqueduct system that supplies the citizens of Braga with drinking drink able drinking waters; Theatro Circo (Portuguese: Teatro Circo de Braga), twentieth centuries Renaissance theater, famous for its architectural style, as well as for its movies, drama and performance; Tower of Santiago (Portuguese): Tower of Santiago e troço das antiga sturalhas de Braga), part of the old Braga wall, the Tower of Santiago was conceived by the Portuguese baroque champion André Soares, on the basis of a mix of gothic, baroque and rococo style features; Archbishop's Palace of Braga (Portuguese:
Between the 14th and 18th Century, Antigo Paço Arquiepiscopal de Braga), a sacred residency, but after the 20 th CENTURY, seat of the Municipality, the Civil Libraries and the Archives; Chapel of the Holy Spirit (Portuguese: Capela do Holy Spirit), an example of hybrid style, the chapel contains items of the Baroque, neoclassical and Mannerist era; São Bento chapel (Portuguese:
São Bento Capela), built in the second half of the eighteenth c: the church was consecrated in 1755 by Archbishop José of Bragança; the church was consecrated by Sir do Bom Sucesso (Portuguese: A baroque and neo-classical hermitage, Capela do Senior do Bom Sucesso, is accentuated by a principal facade characteristic of André Soares, but built by Carlos Amarante at the beginning of his life, who used shy neo-classical decoration features; Santa Cruz Church (Portuguese: Igreja de Santa Cruz) and the Hospital of the Brotherhood of the Holy Cross of Jerusalem (Portuguese):
Santa Cruz de Jerusalem), built in 1581 and later backed by the Sisters of the Hospitaler; Santa Eulália Cathedral (Portuguese: Igreja de Santa Eulália), a 13th and 14th centuries roman esque situated near Bom Jesus do Monte; Santa Maria Cathedral (Portuguese): Bartolomeu Dos Mártires, a parish of Ferreiros (Igreja de Santa Maria), built in 1560 on the orders of Archbishop Bartolomeu as the Church of the Society of Jesus; Santo André Cathedral (Portuguese:
Paroquial Igreja de Gondizalves/Igreja de Santo André), an example of the revival of the modernist aesthetics of the mid-20th centuries, the churches of the eighteenth and eighteenth centuries were adjusted and extended after the decantation of the churches in 1975; churches of São Martinho (Portuguese: São Martinho ), the baroque and classical parish of Espinho, known for its artistic facade and its belfry as well as its Rococo interiors; St. Miguel de Frossos Cathedral (Portuguese:
São Miguel ), a 16-th c: medieval vicarage in the Frossos civic vicarage; São Miguel de Gualtar chapel (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Gualtar/Igreja de São Miguel), part of the intensive construction phase of the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries, the Gultar vicarage was built in the seventeenth centuries but later rebuilt in the eighteenth centuries; São Miguel chapel, a sixteenth c: n. 16th c: Igreja Paroquial de Gualtar/Igreja de São Miguel; São Miguel chapel, a sixteenth c: Igreja Paroquial de Gualtar/Igreja de São Miguel; Gultar chapel, built in the seventeenth c. but later rebuilt in the eighteenth c:
Paroquial de Arcos/Igreja de São Paio), in Arcos, the temple is a early 1800s temple (built in 1706); São Paulo temple (Portuguese: Igreja de São Paulo e Seminário de Santiago), the historic seminar and Saint Paul's temple, with its stark contrasts between the Stone facade and the Baroque decoration of the interiors, constructed during the reign of Bartholomew bishop; São Pedro de Lomeo's temple, in São Pedro de Lomeo:
Lomar ), remains of the old Benedictine abbey of Sao Pedro in Lomar, the St. Peter's is an example of a mixture of baroque, mannerist and neo-classical architectural style; St. Pedro de Maximinos in Portuguese: Nossa Senhora do Carmo (Portuguese: Convento de Nossa Senhora do Carmo), mainly known for its main tower/Belfrey, sketched by João de Moura Coutinho de Almeida e Eça and built in the 17th to 18th centuries; Third Order of Saints Curch.
In 1685, the Terceiros began building their own chapel, which they gave to the Mother of God of the Conception (Portuguese: Igreja dos Terceiros): The Nossa Senhora da Conceição; monastery of the Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Portuguese: Convento da Nossa Senhora da Conceição), to which the chapel of São Domingos belongs, an 18th centuries monastery in which the Instituto Monsenhor Ariosa is located; monastery of Pópulo (Portuguese: Convento da Nossa Senhora da Conceição); monastery of Pópulo (Portuguese: Convento da Pópulo da Pópulo):
Pópulo Convent), the mannerist, baroque, rococo and neo-classical strict features of the monastery, which reflect the flamboyant interiors that were once the home of the Augustinian friars, accentuated by the baroque facade of the church of Pópulo (Portuguese: São Francisco de Montélios Monastery (Portuguese: Convento de São Francisco/Igreja de São Jerónimo de Real), the Baroque, Rococo and Neoclassic monasteries, accentuated by the impressive three-storey facade of the church of São Jerónimo; Nossa Senhora do Aflitos Cross (Portuguese:
The Cruzeiro da Nossa Senhora do Aflitos ( "Cruzeiro da Nossa Senhora do Aflitos "), a Baroque crucifix on an Ionian pillar, with a wooden picture of Christ, crowned by a square wooden collection of buildings and a wooden ceiling; Dumio Monastery (Portuguese: Ruínas Arqueológicas de São Martinho de Dume), the old place of worship built by Martin de Braga in the center of Dume province; Tibães Monastery (Portuguese: Tibães:
Tibães ), the Benedictine convent from the 17th and 17th centuries, famous for its ornamental and decorative goldsmith work on its altar and shrines; Shrine of Bom Jesus do Monte, built on Monte Santo, with a view of the Braga area, the eighteenth to early nineteenth centuries, neoclassical shrine and temple (even with baroque staircase), can be reached via the path or the Bom Jesus cable car (one of the oldest of the Iberian peninsula); shrine of Nossa Senhora do Sameiro (Portuguese):
Sanctuary of Nossa Senhora do Sameiro), located on the hill of Monte do Sameiro, began the sanctuary and the withdrawal in 1861, from the point of view of Father Martinho António Pereira da Silva, who wanted to build a memorial to the Madonna of the Conception; Sanctuary of Santa Maria Madalena (Portuguese:
The Santuário de Santa Maria Madalena (Santuário da Falperra), on Monte Falperra, the pilgrimage chapel from the time of the B.A., was conceived by the native architecture firm André Soares and incorporated ornamental features into a two-towered tribute to Mary Magdalene; the São Brás landscape coffin (Portuguese: São Brás ), although presumably a modern memorial, the Bildstock in Ferreiros has the qualities of many of Braga's early Renaissance memorials; a festivals that transform the historic centre of the town and its inhabitants into their old self.
Biscainhos Musuem (Portuguese: The Biscainhos Museums, situated in the historic Palace of Biscainhos, houses a continuous exhibition of ornamental arts, comprising furnishings, pottery, European as well as Eastern china, glass, European as well as Portugese timepieces; the Treasury of the Cathedral of Sé (Portuguese): Sé Catedral), the collections vary, but collect artifacts from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries during the era of scientific and artistic research related to the cathedral, among which are pictures and panels of St. Azulejo's; Image Gallery (Portuguese: Imagem Gallery), devoted to photographs, situated near the Porta Nova Gallery and Braga Castle; Medina Gallery (Portuguese: Medina Museum):
Museum of Medina), which is housed in the same edifice as the Museum of Pius XII, the museum houses the 83 olive oils and 21 sketches by the artist Henrique Medina; the Museum of Nogueira da Silva (Portuguese: The Museu Nogeuira da Silva), donated to the University of Minho, comprises the following collections: artifacts, painting, furniture and sculpture gathered over the course of a life, such as Renaissance works of arts, seventeenth-century pieces of jewellery, ceramic and items made of ivories, sterling silver and sacred arts; the Museum of Pius XII (Portuguese: Museu Pio XII), which houses a Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age collections of tools, prehistoric and Luso-Roman potters; the Dom Diogo de Minho, a cathedral of prehistoric and Luso-Roman pottery: Muzeu D.
Museu de Cordofones ( "Museum of Stringed Instruments" in Portuguese), a medieval museum with a selection of medieval instrumental works, among them cavaquinhos, portable guitar, mandolins and bandjos. The Universidade Católica Portuguesa, the oldest privately owned college in Portugal, was also founded in 1967, as was the Escola Secundária Sá de Miranda (the oldest grammar college in Braga).
Braga Educational Agritourism is a farming activity that deals with animal and agricultural issues and welcomes extracurricular activity from school and visitor. Braga's Braga soccer club, Sporting Clube de Braga, was established in 1921 and plays in the top league of Portugese soccer, the League NOS, from the Braga Municipal Stadium sculpted from the Monte Castro hills overlooking the town.
In recent years, Braga has achieved remarkable successes, having won the Taca de Portugal for the second consecutive year in 2016 and reached the Europa League finals in 2011, which she defeated against Portugal's FC Porto. Circuito Vasco Sameiro and the adjoining Kartódromo Internacional de Braga are situated around the airport.
St. Paulus Orosius (ca. 385-c. 420), important scholar and theologian from the bishopric of Braga, close acquaintance of St. Augustine. Bishop Martin of Braga (ca. 520-580), bishop of Braga, who converts the Suebi to Catholicism. The Archbishop of Braga after 1505, Diogo de Sousa (ca. 1461-1532), art patron, rebuilt the cathedral and encouraged the urbanization of the town according to Renaissance examples.
Founder of several parishes and the São Paulo School. In 1748-1815, Carlos Amarante (1748-1815), an important Portugese civil engineer as well as famous architectural designer, changed from the early baroque period to the neo-classical period. Almeida Braga (1890-1970), a Portugese author and political leader, is a leader of the Integralismo Lusitano group. Francis Salgado Zenha (1923-1993), a Portugese left-wing political scientist and attorney.
"Act No 11-A/2013, pages 552 26-28" (pdf) (in Portuguese). Sereno, Isabel; Dordio, Paulo (1994). Società Ispa, ed.'21 Marcos Miliários (série Capela) Braga Incerta via (v. PT0113070000002)' (in Portuguese). by SIPA, ed. 'Arco da Porta Nova/Arco da Rua do Souto (v. PT0113070000002)' (in Portuguese). Sereno, Isabel; Dordio, Paulo; Gonçalves, Joaquim (2007).
Castelo de Braga, desigadamente a Torre de Menagem (restos)" (in Portuguese). Sereno, Isabel; Dordio, Paulo; Gonçalves, Joaquim (2004). Capela de São Frutuoso de Montélios/Capela de São Salvador de Montélios" (in Portuguese).
Geminações de Cidades e Vilas (in Portuguese). Commons Wikimedia has related Braga related news items.