Discover Borobudur holiday and discover the best time and places to visit. **spspan class="mw-headline" id="EtymologieEtymologie[edit]>> Thanikaimoni analyzed these specimens and investigated their pores and pollens to determine the nature of the flora that had developed in the area around the Borobudur building period. Borobudur seems to have been encircled by farmland and palms at the moment of erection of the memorial, as it is still the case today.

In 1985-86 Caesar Voûte and the gemorphologist Dr. J.J. Nossin investigated the Borobudur Sea assumption and affirmed the lack of a Borobudur Sea at the moment of its building and its ancillary use. A New Perspective on Some Old Questions about Borobudur were released in 2005 in the UNESCO paper "The Restoration of Borobudur".

The Borobudur-stupas with a mountain view. 7 ] It was noted that the Redi Borobudur was sieged and the rebels were beaten by the kings and condemned to their deaths. Borobudur's major stupa in the middle of the nineteenth centuary, a wood decking was set up over the major stupa. ÿ Borobudur's interest was more in person than officially.

Because of the instability of the memorial, the main commissioner for culture goods in 1882 advised Borobudur to be completely dismantled and the relief to be moved to musees. In 1885 Borobudur drew public interest when the Flemish architect Jan Willem IJzerman (id; nl), chairman of the Archaeological Society in Yogyakarta, made a discover about the secret arch.

40 ] Photos showing relief on the hiding base were taken in the years 1890-1891. Borobudur had at first sight been regained its former sheen. Later, however, he disassembled the Hattra and quoted that not enough originals were used in the reconstruction of the tip, which means that the initial Borobudur tip is actually not known.

Disassembled Chattra is now housed in the Karmawibhangga Museum, a few hundred metres from Borobudur. In fifteen years the wall of the galery collapsed and the relief showed indications of new tears and decay. 62 ][63] In 1991, a stone-faced Moslem minister, Husein Ali Al Habsyie, was convicted of lifelong detention for conducting a string of mid-1980s bomb attacks, which included the Tempel War.

Kyrgyzstan's political and military personnel in August 2014 strengthened safety precautions in and around the Borobudur sanctuary as a safeguard against a menace published in the public relations press by a self-proclaimed Indonesia arm of ISIS, quoting that the Borobudur fighters and other sculptures in Indonesia were to be destroyed. 66 ] The safety enhancements involved the repairs and enhanced use of CCTV screens and the introduction of a overnight patrol in and around the sanctuary grounds.

The Borobudur is constructed as a large monolithic stupa and, seen from above, assumes the shape of a huge Tantra buddhistic mandate that represents both the buddhistic universe and the essence of the spirit. 71 ] The initial base is a rectangle, about 118 meters (387 ft) on each side. 40 ] The "hidden base" contains relief, 160 of which describe the actual K?madh?tu

All the other relief are plates with brief engravings that seem to give the sculptor directions and illustrate the scene to be made. 81 ] There is another hypothesis that the shelter basis was added because the initial concealed foundation was wrongly constructed, according to Vastu Shastra, the old India textbook on urbanism.

The reliefs were made on site after completion of the construction. The Borobudur is very different from the general construction of other buildings that have been constructed for this use. Borobudur is constructed on a naturally occurring mound instead of on a level area. Borobudur was initially considered a stupa rather than a sanctuary without the interiors that can be seen in other sanctuaries and with a general appearance resembling the form of a pyrid.

On the other side a church is used as a place of God. Borobudur's painstakingly complex nature indicates that it is indeed a sanctuary. You will find the front door on the east side, where the first story relief is located. Archaeologists during the Borobudur excavations found color pigmentation of bluish, reddish, green, blackened and golden foils and came to the conclusion that the monuments we see today - a colorless, deep grey compound of vulcanic rock - were probably once covered with Varyalepa whitewash and then decorated with light color, which perhaps served as a lighthouse of Buddhist tea.

Borobudur bas-reliefs were probably quite colorful before the color pigment was replaced by deluge-like rain. There are two relief on top of each other in the wall of the first balcony, each consisting of 120 plates. Karmavibangga scenes on Borobudur's hiding feet, on the right the wicked act of murdering and boiling tortoises and fish, on the right those who live by murdering an animal are tormented in hell by being boiled live, sliced or tossed into a blazing hous.

In 1890 Casijan Chepas took a photograph of the pedestal of the Borobudur shrine to unveil the concealed leg. These photos are exhibited in the Borobudur Museum (Karmawibhangga Museum), which is only a few hundred metres northern of the Shrine. In the course of the renovation, the feet coating that covers the Karmawibhangga relief was reattached.

The Jatakas and avadana are dealt with in one and the same set in the Borobudur relief. Aside from the history of Buddhist Cosmology, which is set in rock, Borobudur has many sculptures of different Buddhas. Buddha headless in Borobudur because her discoveries of numbers were taken from Buddha's mind and ended up in foreign museuses.

The mudra of the Borobudur Buddhas are to be visited according to the order of Pradakshina (clockwise) from the east: Borobudur in June 1950. A number of archeological remains from Borobudur or its reproduction have been exhibited in some Indonesian and foreign museuses. In addition to the Karmawibhangga Museum on the grounds of the Borobudur Theatre, some of them house Borobudur vestiges, such as the Indonesian National Museum in Jakarta, the Tropical Museum in Amsterdam, the British Museum in London and the Thai National Museum in Bangkok.

The Louvre in Paris, the Malaysian National Museums in Kuala Lumpur and the World Religions in Taipei also showed a reproduction of Borobudur. Borobudur's picture is emblematic of the Central Java region and the regency of Magelang. The name Borobudur is the name of several institutions such as the Borobudur University, the Borobudur Hotel in Central Jakarta and several local Indian restaurant abroad.

The name Borobudur was mentioned in the Rupiah bank note, postage stamp, book numbers, publication, documentation and Indonesia tourist advertising material. It has become one of the most important tourist attractions in Indonesia, which is indispensable for the regional economies in the area around the Shrine. Yogyakarta's tourist industry, for example, thrives in part because of its close vicinity to the Borobudur and Prambanan churches.

Disseminated parts of the Borobudur sanctuary at the Karmawibhangga Museum. They still can't find their initial position. Leap up ^ "Largest Buddhistic temple". Accessed January 27, 2014. High jumping ^ Purnomo Siswoprasetjo (July 4, 2012). "Borobudur calls Guinness the greatest Buddha sanctuary in the world." Archives from the orginal on November 5, 2014. Accessed January 27, 2014.

Skip up to: a d e f "Borobudur Temple Compounds". Accessed December 28, 2008. Skip up to: a w k Soekmono (1976), pages 35-36. High Jumping ^ "Borobudur : Archiveed from the orginal on April 14, 2012. Accessed April 5, 2012. Le Huu Phuoc (April 2010).

Accessed April 5, 2012. Skip up to: a d Soekmono ('76), page 4. Leap up ^ Mark Elliott; et al. (November 2003). Skip up to: a p ca Mark P. Hampton (2005). Skip up to: a m E. Sedyawati (1997). Skip up to: a d Soekmono ('76), page 13.

Skip high to: a s Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817). Skip high to: a p J.G. de Casparis, "The Double Nature of Barabudur", in Gómez and Woodward (1981), pages 70 and 83. Leap up ^ "Borobudur" (in Indonesian). Embassy of Indonesia in The Hague. Released July 24, 2014. Highjump ^ Drs. R. Soekmono (1988)[1973].

Highjump ^ Walubi. "Borobudur: Kebajikan Candi Berbukit". High Jumping ^ Heekmono ("Soekmono", 1976), page 1. Leap up ^ N. J. Krom (1927). Borobudur, Archaeological Description. Archives from the orginal on August 17, 2008. Accessed August 17, 2008. Skip high to: a to Murwanto, H.; Gunnell, York; Suharsono, S.; Sutikno, S. & Lavigne, F (2004).

"The Borobudur Memorial (Java, Indonesia) was erected on a river: chronostratigraphical testimonies and historic implications". Skip up to: a in Soekmono ('76), page 9. Highjump ^ Coedès, George (1968). Skip up to: a to Dumarçay (1991). Leap up ^ Paul Michel Munoz (2007). The early kingdoms of the archipelago of Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula.

Leap up ^ W. J. van der Meulen (1977). Skip up to: a w. High Jumping ^ Heekmono ("Soekmono", 1976), page 10. Skip up to: a p D.G.E. Hall (1956). "of Indonesian historiography." Leap up ^ Roy E. Jordaan (1993). Rethink the Buddhist background of the Loro Jonggrang Temple Complex.

Skip up to: a in Soekmono ('76), page 5. Skip up to: a in Soekmono ('76), page 6. Skip up to: a in Soekmono ('76), page 42. Highjump ^ John Miksic; Marcello Tranchini; Anita Tranchini (1996). Borobudur: Accessed April 2, 2012. Skip up to: a d i " Borobudur Pernah Salah Design?

" {\a6}(in Indonesian). Archives from the 26 December 2007 org. Accessed August 23, 2008. High Jumping ^ Sun Mono (1976), page 43. Skip up to: a d e "UNESCO expert delegation to Prambanan and Borobudur Heritage Sites" (press release). August 31, 2004. Skip up to: a bar "Saving Borobudur".

Released July 21, 2014. Skip high to: a g Caesar Voute; Voute, Caesar (1973). "of the Borobudur Temple, Indonesia. Leap to the top ^ "Cultural Patrimony and Partnerships; 1999" (PDF) (Press release). Accessed August 17, 2008. Hop up ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Borobudur's UI archeology teacher is weighing on Borobudur's'chattra' restoration."

Retracted 2018-05-04. High Jumping ^ Vaisutis, Justine (2007). Skip up ^ "The importance of the procession". Accessed December 28, 2008. High Jumping ^ Jamie James (January 27, 2003). "Borobudur Battle". Accessed August 23, 2008. Hip up ^ "Candi Borobudur di Guinness World Records" (in Indonesian). Archiveed from the orginal on July 9, 2012.

Accessed July 15, 2012. Skip up to: a d e "Section II: Accessed February 23, 2010. Highjump ^ "Batu Tangga Candi Borobudur akan Dilapisi Kayu" (in Indonesian). August 19, 2014. Accessed August 26, 2014. Leap up ^ "Covered with volcano fly ash, Borobudur momentarily closed" from, Magelang, Java version by ANTARA News.

November 6, 2010. Archiveed from the orginal on November 9, 2010. Accessed November 6, 2010. Leap up ^ "Borobudur temple compelled to shut while workers remove Merapi ashes". November 7, 2010. Archiveed from the orginal on November 11, 2010. Accessed November 7, 2010. Jumping up ^ "Inilah Foto-foto Kerusakan Candi" (in Indonesian).

November 7, 2010. Accessed November 7, 2010. Leap up ^ "Borobudur's post-Merapi Ereuption Rehabilitation can take three years: Archives from the orginal on January 16, 2016. Leap up ^ "Borobudur cleaning by the end of November". Accessed June 28, 2012. Stone Conservation Workshop, Borobudur, Central Java, Indonesia, 11-12 January 2012 sponsored by the Federal Republic of Germany - | UNESCO Office in Jakarta".

Released September 8, 2017. Germany is supporting the protection of Borobudur. Archiveed from the orginal on June 15, 2012. Accessed June 28, 2012. Leap up ^ "Borobudur, other places, shut after the Kelud eruption". Accessed February 15, 2014. Leap up ^ "1,100 year old Buddhist temple destroyed by bombs in Indonesia".

Accessed August 17, 2008. High heeled ^ "Teror Bom di Indonesia (Beberapa di Luar Negeri) Dari Waktu ke Waktu" (in Indonesian). Archiveed from the orginal on September 17, 2011. Accessed May 3, 2012. High jumping Harold Crouch (2002). Archiveed from the orginal (PDF) on March 20, 2015. Leap to the top^ Sebastien Berger (May 30, 2006).

Accessed August 23, 2008. High Jumping ^ Ika Fitriana (August 22, 2014). "Terkaite Ancaman ISIS di Media Sosial, Pengamanan Candi Borobudur Diperketat" (in Indonesian). Accessed August 26, 2014. Ika Fitriana (November 19, 2014). "Candi Borobudur Mulai Dilapisi Kayu". (in Indonesian). Accessed October 14, 2015.

I made Asdhiana, ed. "Tangga Candi Borobudur Dilapisi Karet". (in Indonesian). Accessed October 14, 2015. Leap to the top ^ Sugiyanto (October 13, 2015). "Pengunjung Borobudur Diharuskan Pakai Sandal Khusus". Hop up ^ John N. Miksic; Marcello Tranchini. Borobudur: Accessed January 28, 2014. Leap up ^ A. Wayman (1981).

High Jumping ^ Vaisutis, Justine (2007). Hip up ^ "Pangguyangan". This is Dinas Pariwisata Dan Budaya Provinsi Jawa Barat (in Indonesian). Highjump ^ I.G.N. Anom; Sri Sugiyanti; Hadniwati Hasibuan (1996). Isil Pemugaran then Temuan Benda Cagar Budaya PJP I (in Indonesian). High Jumping ^ Timbul Haryono (2011). Borobudur Sendratari wahakarya (in Indonesian).

High Jumping ^ R. Heekmono (? 2002). Indonesia 2 (in Indonesian) by Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan. High up ^ "Kebudayaan Megalithic Prof. Dr. Sutjipto Wirgosuparto". Archiveed from the orginal on July 10, 2012. Accessed June 28, 2012. Hop up ^ Tartakov, Gary Michael. Accessed August 17, 2008. High Jumping ^ Heekmono ("Soekmono", 1976), page 17.

High jumping ^ Peter Ferschin & Andreas Gramelhofer (2004). Skip up to: a in Soekmono ('76), page 18. Skip up to: a d Soekmono ('76), page 16. Skip up to: a caesar Voûte & Mark Long. Borobudur: Archives from the orginal on June 8, 2008.

Accessed August 17, 2008. Skip up to: a bar ahmadi () (1988). High Jumping ^ H. Situngkir (2010). "The Borobudur was constructed algorithmically." High ^ "Borobudur". Archiveed from the orginal on January 5, 2012. Accessed November 11, 2011. High Jumping ^ Tom Cockrem (2008). "The Temple of Enlightenment." Accessed November 11, 2011.

Jumping up ^ "The Cinnamon Route". This is Borobudur Park. Archiveed from the orginal on September 25, 2010. Accessed December 14, 2011. Leap to the top ^ "The Borobudur Ship Expedition, Indonesia to Africa 2003-2004". Borobudur ship expedition. Archives from the article dated February 17, 2003. Accessed December 14, 2011. Skip up ^ "Surasundari".

Accessed November 11, 2011. Skip up to: a bar "The Greatest Sacred Buildings". Accessed May 4, 2015. Skip up to: a d Soekmono ('76), page 20. Jaini, P.S. (1966). Analysis of the texts and the "Borobudur reliefs". Skip up to: a d Soekmono ('76), page 21.

High Jumping ^ Heekmono ('76), page 26. Hop up ^ "Jataka". Accessed December 4, 2011. High Jumping ^ Heekmono ('76), page 29. High Jumping ^ Heekmono ("Soekmono", 1976), page 32. High Jumping ^ Heekmono ("Soekmono", 1976), page 35. Highjump ^ Hiram W. Woodward Jr. (1979). High jumping ^ Roderick S. Bucknell & Martin Stuart-Fox (1995).

High Jumping ^ Wood, Michael (2011). Leap to the top ^ "Buddhism in Indonesia". Archives from the 14 February 2002 org. Accessed May 4, 2015. The Vesak Festival: A truly sacred experience". Archiveed from the orginal on May 4, 2015. Accessed May 4, 2015. Borobudur: This is a sketch of the building projected onto the relief of the Borobudur-Temples.

Borobudur. tran. and ed. by Michael Smithies (2nd edition). Borobudur: Thusekmono (1976). "Chandri Borobudur: Accessed August 17, 2008. R. Heekmono, J.G. de Casparis, J. Dumarçay, P. Amranand and P. Schoppert (1990). Borobudur: Conf. in Borobudur, Univ. from Michigan, 16-17 May 1974. Attorney-at-law August J.B. Kempers (1976). Timeless Borobudur:

Borobudur's secrets. "Saving Old Borobudur, Indonesia." Ruins of temples:

Mehr zum Thema