Birmania Country

Burman Country

The authorities further restricted humanitarian access throughout the country. Myanmar's two-letter country code is MM, the three-digit code is MMR. This poses major health challenges for the country. The Irrawaddy River basin and delta, surrounded by a horseshoe of high mountains isolating the country from India, China and Thailand. ".

..collective strength" to meet the challenges of our country.


There has been a dramatic deterioration in the housing market. Throughout Rakhine, tens of tens of thousands of Rohingya escaped committing a crime against mankind to neighboring Bangladesh; those who were left were still living under a system of Apartheid. There have been major breaches of public humanitary laws by the armed forces. Bureaucracy further restricted humane accessibility throughout the country.

Obstacles to free speech remain. The impunity for past and current infringements of people' s freedoms remains. There was stagnation in the pace of trade and industry reform, while the peacemaking effort to end decade-long domestic conflict came to a standstill. It maintained significant security of government and independence from civil supervision. Myanmar on 6 October 2008 gave ratification to ICESCR, which is due to enter into effect on 6 January 2018.

The state of Rakhine was in a state of emergency when, following coordinated assaults by the Army Group Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) on some 30 military stations, the police launched a violent attack on the predominantly Muslim Rohingya tribal group in the north of the state. Over 655,000 Rohingya escaped to Bangladesh as a consequence of the war.

It also affected other ethnical minorities, with an expected 30,000 persons reportedly being deported to other parts of the state of Rakhine. Abuse has been reported, with the assassination of informers and the forced disappearances of Rakhine and Mro village dwellers by ARSC. Rakhine State kept Rohingya under an aparheid system that greatly limited practically every facet of her life and separated her from the world.

Their right to citizenship, free circulation, the highest achievable standards in the fields of healthcare, training, work, nutrition, religious and religious liberty and participation in civil society have been subject to routine and systematic discrimination. It rejected accusations of violation of people' s freedoms and ignored demands for investigation and accounting.

The EU initialled an agreement with Bangladesh on the return of verified migrants, and indicated its commitment to the implementation of the Kofi Annan Recommendation and the evolution of the State of Rakhine. Fights between Myanmar's army and ethnically based military groups have increased in the north. There have been widespread abuses of civilian lives by the army against indigenous minorities, among them extra-judicial and other illegal murders, involuntary disappearance, indiscriminate detention, acts of torture and other abuses and forms of coercive work.

Army firing mortars and ordnance on a regular basis as it fought against ethnically oriented groups, often landing in civil areas. Some of these offences were probably acts of warfare. Ethnically militarised groups have violated internationally humanitarian laws, which include disappearance, violent recruiting and blackmail. The Myanmar army and ethnically based groups have both placed anti-personnel mines or landmine-like mines.

The civil as well as armed forces continue to impose severe and arbitrary restrictions on human rights and endanger their livelihood. Border restrictions further curtailed exiled persons in the north of Myanmar, particularly to those who live in areas that were not under state rule. The Myanmar Army stopped the supply of 200 UN-stamped dility sets for trafficked females and females in areas under Kachin Independence Organization rule in February.

Over 106,000 persons have been driven out by the conflict in the north of Myanmar. About 120,000 persons, mainly Rohingya, were still living in poor IDP centres in the state of Rakhine, where they were imprisoned for five years after the 2012 war. More than 655,000 Rohingya migrants had escaped to Bangladesh by the end of the year after carrying out illegal and excessive armed missions in the north of Rakhine.

Myanmar and Bangladesh concluded an accord in November to return displaced persons to Myanmar, while the Burmese fled across the Jordan. Rakhine's rigid and persistent regimes of Apartheid made any return unsafe and unworthy. About 100,000 more Myanmar migrant workers remained in Thai refugee centres where they were confronted with declining levels of relief work.

A number of voiced concern about the return to Myanmar, referring to the continuing insecurity, militarisation in ethnical areas and the absence of basic service provision. In spite of the amnesty in April and May, conscientious detainees were still detained. Public administrations continue to use a series of draft bills restricting the right to free speech, free movement and non-violent gathering to detain and detain individuals only for the non-violent exercise of their political prerogatives.

Lahpai Gam, a guilty man of remorse, an ethnical Kachin peasant, stayed in jail and suffered from serious sickness. There have been further significant limitations on the right to free speech, the right of union and the right to assemble peacefully. On-line slander, however, was still a crime. People who defended people' s freedoms, as well as attorneys and reporters - especially those who talked about the Rohingya case, worship insults and injuries by the army - were monitored, intimidated and attacked.

By the end of the year, the case against four suspects had not yet been concluded; a fifth was released. Dumdaw Nawng Lat and his assistent Langjaw Gam were arrested in November for supporting reporters of aerial bombing near the city of Monekoe in 2016.

Three journalists were apprehended in June and accused of having contacted an "illegal association" after they returned from an area under the control of an illegal immigrant community in the north of Myanmar. In December, two Reuters journalists were apprehended in the context of their coverage of the Rakhine state outbreak.

They were both detained in solitary confinement for two consecutive months and were detained at the end of the year. In the aftermath of the August terrorist attack in Rakhine, there was a strong increase in the level of insurrection. It made the problem worse by both permitting and directly generating hateful speeches calling for discriminatory and violent practices in printed and on-linens.

During the whole year, persistent discriminations against minority religions, especially Muslims. Though the Kayin State Chief Minister later said that the decree was an "administrative error", the travelling regulations remain in place at the end of the year. Until the end of the year, no account was taken of the environment or the protection of people.

Tribunals continue to pass laws that allow the use of the capital punishment. There has been a continuing tradition of impunity for the breaches of human freedoms perpetrated by the SSA. The majority of offenders of past and present infringements of fundamental freedoms, in particular those of public policy, had not been called to account for their deeds.

In the Rakhine state, the authorities have neglected to properly examine and bring to justice the culprits of serious breaches of fundamental freedoms, in particular those perpetrated against the state. In November, a recent Israeli and Palestinian intelligence survey found that no breaches of the law were perpetrated in the state of Rakhine following the ARSA attack of 25 August and the ensuing war.

The UNHRC set up an autonomous intergovernmental fact-finding missions in March to investigate "the facts and circumstances" of violation and violation of fundamental freedoms, particularly in the state of Rakhine. There was fierce resistance from the authorities, who distanced themselves from the investigations and denied the entry of the group.

Significant increases in global awareness were concentrated on Myanmar and the Rakhine crises following the August bombings. In November, the UN General Assembly also adopted a UN General Assembly General Assembly resolution on the state of fundamental freedoms in Myanmar. The UNHRC met in December for a extraordinary meeting on the plight of Rohingya and other minority groups.

As the UN Special Rapporteur on the status of fundamental freedoms in Myanmar has been confronted with growing barriers to entry, she has been expelled from the country for the rest of her term of office until the end of the year. Earlier, it had expressed concern about the worsening state of affairs in the country.

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