The Bengal region is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the head of the Bay of Bengal. The official Collins dictionary French-English online. Watch the presentation video of the Alliance française du Bengale: . The Porte du Bengale, streets: The Bengal Rose, description, photos, references, ratings, reviews, gardens and nurseries selling the Rose du Bengale.

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Bengali (;[3]Bengali: ?????/????, letter'B?ngl?/Bôngô'[?ba?la]/[?b??go]) is a geo-political, culturally and historically important area in Asia, situated in the western part of the sub-continent of India at the head of the Bay of Bengal. From a geographical point of view, it consists of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta system, the biggest such group in the whole wide globe; together with the mountain range in the northern part, which borders on the Himalayas Nepal and Bhutan and in the easterly part on Burma.

Thick forests, which include rolling rain forests, occupy the north and east areas of Bengal, while an increased wooded plain occupies its main area. The Sundarbans, the biggest mangroves wood in the word and home of the Bengali Tigers, lie in the litoral South-West. 7 ] The area has a Bengali calendars six -season moonshine.

Bengali has been an important part of the story. Occasionally an autonomous territorial realm, the historic area was a leader in Southeast Asia and later in the Islamic East, with vast trading nets. The Greeks knew Bengal as Gangaridai, known for its powerful clout. 8 ] Later authors noticed commercial navigation connections between Bengal and Rome's Egypt.

Bengali Pala was the last great Buddhaist empire on the subcontinent[9], which was established in 750 and became the dominating force on the NI sub-continent in the ninth century[10][11], before it came to the fore in the X12. 12 ] The Bengali Sultanate of Islam, established in 1352, was incorporated into the Mughal Empire in 1576.

Mughal Bengal Subah became an important world exporter,[13][14][15] a centre of world-wide industry such as muscle, fabric, silk, pearl,[16] cotton textiles,[17] and ship building. In 1757 it was captured by the BIS Company and became the Bengali presidency, which under UK domination saw deindustrialisation and famine. 19 ] After the country's liberation, the division of Bengal (1947) divided the West Bengal area in India and East Pakistan, which became an autonomous country in Bangladesh in 1971.

The Bengali civilization is particularly powerful in the areas of philosphy, literary, music, ship building, arts, architecture, sport, money, trade, government and the cuisines. The largest part of the Bengali is in the Ganges-Brahmaputra valley, but there are uplands in the northern, northeastern and southeastern parts. Bengali covers 232,752 square kilometres - West Bengali 88,752 square kilometres (34,267 square metres) and Bangladesh 147,570 square kilometres (56,977 square metres).

Westbengalen lies at the east of India and stretches from the Himalaya in the south to the Gulf of Bengal in the east. 32 ] The hilly landscape of the Darjeeling Himalaya in the state' North is in the Himalayas' East. There is Sandakfu (3,636 meters (11,929 feet)) - the highest summit in the state.

33 ] The small Terai area divides this area from the plain, which in turn merges into the Ganges River valley to the north. Rarh encroaches between the Ganges River valley in the eastern part and the west highlands and plates. Sundarbans is a small coastline in the far southernmost part of the country, while the mangroves of Sundarbans are a notable geographic symbol of the Ganges area.

There are at least nine West Bengal and 42 Bangladesh constituencies with ground waters containing more than 50 µg/L or 50 parts per billion and the raw waters are not suitable for use. Northeastern Bengal is a word for the northwestern part of Bangladesh and the northwestern part of West Bengal.

In general, it is the area between the Jamuna River and the Padma River and encompasses the Barind Tract. The political part of Western Bengal consists of the Jalpaiguri Division (Alipurduar, Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, South Dinajpur, South Dinajpur and Malda) and Bihar's parts comprise the Kishanganj area. The Darjeeling Hills also belong to Northern Bengal.

Although only Jaipaiguri, Alipurduar and Cooch Behar call themselves North Bengali. Northern Bengal is subdivided into the Terai and Dooars areas. Northern Bengal is also known for its wealth of natural and historical monuments, two of which are UNESCO World Sites. Besides the Bengali Congregation, Northern Bengal is home to many other localities, such as Nepalese, Santhaler, Lepchas and Rajbongshis.

It is the junction of Bengal and North-East India. The Central Bengal relates to the Dhaka Division of Bangladesh. Padma River crosses the south of the area and separates the Faridpur area. The northern areas are Mymensingh and Tangail. Sundarbans, an important bio-diversity hot spot, is situated in South Bengal.

The remaining 40% of Bangladesh's forests are in India. South-East Bengal [42][43][44] relates to the undulating and near-shore Bengali-speaking areas of the Chittagong Division in south-east Bangladesh and the state of Tripura in India. Südostbengalen is known for its Dalassocratic and maritime legacy. In ancient times, the area was ruled by the Bengali empires of Harikela and Samatata.

In the Middle Ages, the area was governed by the Sultanate of Bengal, the Kingdom of Tripura, the Kingdom of Mrauk U, the Portuguese Empire and the Mughal Empire. Bengali's Chittagonistic accent is widespread in the south-eastern Bengali coastline.

Together with its Bengali people, it is also home to the Tibeto-Burman tribes, which include the Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, Tripuri and Bawm. The Sundarbans, the Somapura Mahavihara, the mosque town of Bagerhat and the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway are four regional heritage sites. Cox' s Bazar in southeast Bangladesh is home to the longest unspoilt sandy beaches in the whole of Bangladesh and a thriving surf destination [47] St. Martin's Island, off the Chittagong Division coastline, is home to the only Bengal Sea Riff.

One of the most fruitful areas on earth, with luxuriant greenery and arable land that dominates its countryside, is the shallow Bengali plain that stretches across most of Bangladesh and West Bengal. Bengal towns are hidden between mangos, jacques, betel nuts and date palms. There are Himalayan runners (Dooars) with thickly forested sal and other evergreens in the north.

You can also find Sal forests in Bangladesh, especially in Bhawal National Park. Lawachara National Park is a tropical jungle in the northeast of Bangladesh. Chittagong Hill Tracts in southeast Bangladesh are characterized by high bio-diversity. Sundarbans in the southwest of Bengal is the biggest mangroves wood of the earth and belongs to the UNESCO cultural heritage.

There are over 89 mammalian and 628 bird and many other types of mammal. Bangladesh's icons are the Eurasian rose, the eastern pied elephant rabin, the helsa and the mongoose. To West Bengals, the White-throated kingfisher, the Khatim pole and the night-flowering Jasmin are state heralds. Bengali tigers are the animals of Bangladesh and India.

This is the state beast of West Bengal. In Bengal, man's occupation can be tracked back 20,000 years. 49 ][50] Archaeological proofs confirm that in the second millenium B.C. there lived paddy -growing municipalities in the area. 51 ]Estuaries in the Bay of Bengal approved for sea trading. From 600 B.C. the second phase of urbanisation devoured the northern sub-continent of India as part of the northern black-polished commodity cultures of Arabia, Persia and India.

" Bengal was absorptive by Islamic invasions of the sub-continent of India in 1204. 61 ][62] The area has been conquered by the Sultanate of Delhi. Important town states in Sonargaon, Satgaon and Lakhnauti were established in the area. In 1352 Ilyas Shah reached the union of an independant Bengal. The Bengali sultanate was an important political, economical and militaristic force on the sub-continent in the fourteenth and fifteenth c....

Sher Shah Suri was coronated emperor of the north sub-continent in the Bengali capitol Gaur in 1540. Bengal invaded the Mughal Empire in the sixteenth. Bengal Subah in the Mughal Empire was the richest state of the sub-continent. Bengal's commerce and riches made such an impression on the Mughal that the Mughal emperors called it the paradise of nations.

63 ] The area was also known for its mighty, semi-independent aristocracy such as Tuqdars and Samindars, among them the twelve Bhuiyans and the Nawabs of Bengal. Bhola in 1970, which killed 500,000 Bengalese, made it one of the most deadly cyclions. West-Bengal became one of India's most populated states.

Calcutta, the former British Raj capitol, became the capitol of West Bengal and remained India's biggest town until the end of the twentieth-century when heavy blackouts, strike and a militant Marxist-Naxalite struggle in the sixties and seventies caused damage to much of the state's infrastructures and led to a phase of stagnant economy.

The political situation in West Bengali changed greatly when the Left Front won the 1977 parliamentary elections and defeated the current Indian National Congress. Headed by the Indian Communist Party (Marxist) (CPI(M)), the Left Front ruled the state for three years. It was the longest elective government in the whole of India.

71 ] Since the 2000s, West Bengal has been experiencing an economical regeneration, especially in the IT sector. Barak Valley became part of the State of Assam after the division of Sylhet in 1947. In 1961, one of the most significant incidents in the area' s development was the linguistic revolution, in which the assassination of activists by the state policemen resulted in Bengali being recognised as one of the offical tongues of Assam.

A controversial part of the Assam dispute was the question of the Bengali settlements in the state. The Jamuna riverbank, which was opened in 1998, is currently the longest in the Bengali area. Bengali was an autonomous area during several eras of the past, while in other eras it was part of greater states.

Bengali was also a local imperium that ruled neighbouring areas such as Bihar, Orissa, Arakan and parts of northern India, Assam and Nepal. In political terms, the area is shared between the People's Republic of Bangladesh, an autonomous state, and the east Indian province, which includes West Bengal, Assam and Tripura.

Both Bangladesh and Bengali India are socialists in political terms, with left-wing political groups dominant in the area. Bangladesh is a parliamentarian state, founded on the Westminster system, with a constitutional charter and a president chosen by parliaments for mostly ceremony use. Bangladesh had a system of president between 1975 and 1990.

Awami League and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) are the two biggest in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh is a high-profile member of the United Nations, the biggest donor of peacekeepers in the global community and an important supporter of multi-lateral democracy. Bangladesh, a poor nation with a high level of economic deprivation, has made significant progress in terms of humanitarian progress in comparison with its neighbours.

Bengal West, Tripura and Assam (home of the Barak Valley) are provinces of the Republic of India, with community leaders and assemblies divided with other states of India's federalism. India's president nominates a governor to solemnly represent the trade unions in India. President oversight in the states is often imperative as a result of interventions by the trade unions governed by the Prime Minister of India.

Every state has representatives in the lower houses of India, the Lok Sabha. Every state appoints members of the top echelons of India, the Rajya Sabha. State legislatures also played a pivotal part in the election of the solemn President of India. Former President of India, Pranab Mukherjee was a West Bengali by birth and head of the National Congress of India.

Two of the most important policy powers in the Bengali-speaking area of India are the Front and the Trinamool Congress, with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the National Congress of India being smaller actors. Bangladesh and India are the second and eight most populated nations in the run. Bangladesh' s relationship with India began in 1971, when India was playing an important part in Bangladesh' s deliverance, with the Indian-Bengali population and press overwhelmingly supporting the independent movements in former East Pakistan.

The English language is often used for formal work alongside Bengali. There are other important Indian-Aryan tongues such as Hindi, Urdu, Assamese and Nepali also known in Banglades. Islamic and Hinduism are widespread in the Bengali area. Bangladesh's main religious denomination is Islam, while Hinduism is the main one.

From a historical point of view, Bengal was the sub-continent's industry power. It is one of the biggest paddy growing areas in the word, with West Bengal the biggest Indian and Bangladesh the 4th biggest Indian paddy-growing area. There are three exchange houses in the area, among them the Dhaka stock exchange, the Chittagong floor exchange and the Calcutta floor exchange.

Banglajesh and India are the biggest South Asian traders with an approximate value of USD 6.9 billion. Much of this commercial activity is concentrated in some of the heaviest country harbours in the rest of the intercontinental transport network on the Bangladesh-India frontier, in particular the West Bengal section. India's division separated the once powerful industrial ties that incorporated the area.

In Bangladesh and West Bangladesh and the whole area, which includes Northeast India, Nepal and Bhutan, more and more towns are connected by regular flights, trains and buses. These are the biggest towns in Bengali (in number of inhabitants): Bengali lies at the intersection of two major business blocks, SAARC and ASEAN.

The island offers the inland states of Nepal and Bhutan and the seven sister states of north-east India easy maritime accessibility. This is also close to China's inner south, which includes Yunnan and Tibet. Bengal Bay is of strategic importance for its important waterways and key position between the Middle East and the Pacific.

Headquartered in Dhaka, the Bay of Bengal Initiative is bringing together Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka to foster subregional industrial-inclusion. Further sub-groups are the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Southern India (BCIM) and the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal (BBIN) Initiative. Cultureally, Bengal is important for its large Hindu and Moslem population.

Bengal Hindus form the second biggest Indian speaking group. Bengal Muslims are the second biggest Moslem ethnic group in the whole wide globe (after Arabian Muslims), and Bangladesh is the third biggest Moslem mainland in the whole wide globe (after Indonesia and Pakistan). Bengali evolved between the seventh and tenth century from Apabhra??a and Magadhi Prakrit.

115 ] It is in the Bengali Indians' Bengali lettering, a descendent of the old Brahmi family. It is the seventh most widely spread lingua franca in the underworld. It' part of the Bengali-Assamese tongues. The Bengali has had a strong influence on other regional tongues, among them Assamesisch, Chakma, Nepali and Rohingya. This is Bangladesh's only national and second most widely spread Indiananguage.

The Bengali area is a cultural diversity and makes an important contribution to the local culture. Since 1999, the Bengali language movement in Eastern Pakistan has been celebrated by UNESCO as International Mother Tongue Day, as part of its worldwide effort to maintain language identities. Both in Bangladesh and West Bengal, the common denomination is taca.

Bangladesh-taca is an offical symbol of this traditional, while the Bengali writing of the Bengali word for rupees is also indian. Throughout time, the story of the Mt. Takas goes back hundreds of years. In the first millenium B.C. Bengal was one of the oldest currency of the ancestors.

Bengali became the capital of the Iaka. It was the most important symbolic of the Bengali Sultanate's supremacy. In Bengali, the Moroccan euphemism was spelled as taca on its notes until Bangladesh was founded in 1971. The Bengali literary world has a wealth yore. There is a story that goes back to the third millennium BC, when the primary Sanskrit is in the Brahmic type.

Bengali and Bengali developed around 1000 AD from Magadhi Prakrit. Bengali has a long history in popular music, documented by the Chôrjapôdô, Mangalkavya, Shreekrishna Kirtana, Maimansingha Gitika or Thakurmar Jhuli. The Bengali literatures in the Middle Ages were often either devotional (e.g. Chandidas) or adapted from other tongues (e.g. Alaol).

In the Bengali Renaissance of the 19th and 20 st cent. Bengali literary works were modernized by works of composers such as Michael Madhusudan Dutta, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Rabindranath Tagore, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, Kazi Nazrul Islam, Satyendranath Dutta and Jibanananan. Syed Mujtaba Ali, Jasimuddin, Manik Bandopadhyay, Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay, Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay, Buddhadeb Bose, Sunil Gangopadhyay and Humayun Ahmed were important Bengali contemporary poets in the 20 th cent.

Important Bengali authors in English are, among others, Amitav Ghosh, Tahmima Anam, Jhumpa Lahiri and Zia Haider Rahman. Mother Bengal is a Bengali feminine personalization that originated during the Bengali Revival and was later adopted by the Bengali Nazis. 116 ] Mother Bengal stands not only for organic motherhood, but also for her qualities - shelter, infinite charity, comfort, caring, beginning and end of the world.

Rabindranath Tagore used the term "Maa" (mother) several time in Amar Sonar Bangla, the Bangladesh flag, to relate to the metropolitan area of Benjal. Bengali also has a wealth of Indo-Saracen architectural treasures, among them a number of villas and buildings in the palace of Tuqdar. Assumed to have its origins in northern Bengali, the Gupta was a pioneer in the invention of the game of chance, the notion of zero, the theory of the Earth circling the Sun, the studies of sun and moon darknesses, and the blossoming of Sanskrit fiction and dramatic art.

58 ][127] Bengal was the person of religious knowledge labor on the point class during the British Raj. During this time, education reform produced many important scholars in the area. Chandra Bose was a pioneer in research into radiation and microwaves optic, made significant plant sciences and layed the foundation for experimentation on the sub-continent of India.

129 ] He was the first man from the sub-continent of India to be granted a US license in 1904. 130 ][132] In the United States, the Bengali-American engineering graduate Fazlur Rahman Khan became the "father of pipe constructions" in high-rise building work. Baul traditions are a legacy of Bengali traditional Bengali song.

Sylhet Hason Raja is a well-known popular writer. Bengalese popular tunes are often played with the single string Ectara. It also has a wealth of classic North India musical legacy. The Bengali kitchen is the only multicourse cooking traditions that have been historically evolved in the sub-continent of India. It is a popular food, which leads to the proverb "Fish and paddy make a Bengali".

135 ] Bengal's large selection of seafood recipes include Hilsa creations, which are very popular with Bengalese. Bengals make unmistakable sweets from dairy produce such as roshogolla, chômchôm and various sorts of pithe. The Bengali Delta's 700 tributaries, wide meadows and many ancient armies are home to 150 species of Bengali landboats.

Landboats are a key part of Bengali civilization and have been the inspiration of generation of artists as well as writers, among them the Mughal period craftsmen. The mediaeval Bengal was a naval shipyard for the Mughal and Ottoman Navy. 136 ][137] Later in the nineteenth-century the Royal Navy used Bengali yards, also for the Battle of Trafalgar.

Bengal wives often carry the sha?i and the salt war cameez, which are often clearly arranged according to regional culturality. The largest Hindus celebration in Bengal, Durga Puja is the most important socio-cultural occasion in the area. Xmas (called Borodin in Bengali) is also a great celebration attended by everyone regardless of their faith and religion.

The Bangladesh newspaper is a multifaceted, frank and private newspaper with the world's biggest circulation in the Bengali-speaking area. 139 ] West Bengali had 559 papers in 2005,[140] 430 of them in the year. In the Bengali area, crime and soccer are two of the most famous sporting disciplines. Among the indigenous matches are Kho Kho and Kabaddi, the latter being the nation wide game of Bangladesh.

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