Basilica of st Francis of AssisiThe Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi
The Basilica, with its Sacro Convento Monastery, is an unmistakable symbol for those who approach Assisi. Commenced in 1228, the basilica was constructed on the side of a mound and consists of two cathedrals known as the Upper and Lower Church and a tomb in which the sacred remnants are buried.
It is an important early example of the Gothic period in Italy. In the upper and lower churches there are frescos by a number of artists from the Latin and Italian secondary school, including works by Cimabue, Giotto, Simone Martini, Pietro Lorenzetti and possibly Pietro Cavallini.
Because of the variety and qualities of the works, the Basilica has a singular importance for the evolution of contemporary Istituto. Basilica, seen from the bottom of the hill. Francesco de Assisi's Franciscans monastery (Sacro Convento) and the lower and upper basilicas (Italian: Basilica Inferior and Superior ) were built in honour of this particular canon in 1228, immediately after his canonisation.
Pucciarello gave the country to the temple, a mound on the western side of Assisi, known as "Hell's Hill" (Italian: Colle d'Inferno), where once villains were killed. Today this mound is known as the "Paradise Mound". Francis was canonised by Pope Gregory IX in Assisi on 16 July 1228 and the following morning the cornerstone for the new convent was placed, although building had already started.
After the building began, the Pope proclaimed the Pope's ownership of the cathedral. Maestro Jacopo Tedesco, then the most renowned of the architects, was responsible for the design of the building. 3 ] The building was led by Brother Elias of Cortona, one of the first adherents of Saint Francis and former Vicar General of the Order under Saint Francis.
Basilica Lower was completed in 1230. At Pentecost on May 25, 1230, the remnants of St. Francis were taken in a festive parade from his provisional tomb in the San Giorgio Basilica (St. George), now the Basilica of St. Clare of Assisi, to the Lower Basilica. It was hidden for worrying that the remnants of St. Francis could be taken and scattered.
Building of the Upper Basilica began after 1239 and was finished in 1253. In 1288, Pope Nicholas IV, a former General Minister of the Franciscan Order, made the cathedral a papal one. Piazza del Loge, the place that leads to the chapel, is encircled by a colonnade dating from 1474.
It was the home of the large number of people who flocked to this temple. The remnants of St. Francis were discovered under the ground of the lower basilica in 1818. Under Pope Pius IX the tomb was constructed so that the believers could see the tomb of the god. Pope John Paul II met in Assisi on 27 October 1986 and January 2002 with more than 120 members of various faiths and confessions for a World Day of Prayer for Peace.
A group of experts and monks inspected the damages to the Basilica of St. Francis, an aftersquake rocked the edifice and caused the arch to caving in. The group consisted of two Franziskaner monks and two of the experts were murdered. A large part of the fresco series of the lives of St. Francis of Giotto in the upper church of the basilica was slightly ruined, while the collapsing parts of the vaults were almost completely demolished.
For two years the cathedral was shut down for renovation. Maestro Jacopo Tedesco created the chapel on two floors, each dedicated as a school. These are known as the "Basilica superiore" (The Upper Basilica), commonly known as " The Upper Basilica" and the "Basilica inferiore" (The Lower Basilica), generally known as " The Lower Church".
Structually, the lower part of the cathedral was a large grave carrying the top one. A lower cemetery was built under the basilica in the nineteenth c.. From an architectural point of view, the outside of the basilica seems to be connected to the Franciscan monastery, since the high arches of the latter seem to bear and bear the towering arches of the tower.
Like the original structure, both the lower and top part of the building had a single cross-shaped floor layout with a central aisle with four quadratic coves, a quadratic crossroads, a cross aisle protruding from half a cove on each side and an apsis. The lower one was semi-circular and the top one polar. A freestanding belfry in Romanic style is located to the south of the town.
It has a facade of red bricks, subdivided into two horizontally oriented areas of approximately the same level and with a single pediment of the same level as the lower areas. The Baroque blessing loggia, erected in 1754 when the cathedral was elevated to a basilica, is located to the south of the facade and from the forecourt of the upper and lower churches.
In the upper church the originally plain, unostentatious, cross-shaped layout of Brother Elias is maintained. As in the lower church, there is a four-aisled aisle with a rib-vaulted ceiling. In contrast to the lower church, only the oblique fins are semicircular. In contrast to the lower church, the aisles also have rib vault.
In every cove of the aisle and in the courtyard's apsis there are high Pergothic window with an inscription. Presumably, the vestibule was made by a group of Germans who worked in the Assisi area at the end of the thirteenth cent. Window on the ship's lefthand side were made by a France factory (1270), while the window on the right is ascribed to the Maestro di San Francesco factory.
Typical of ecclesiastical Italy, the principal decoration and the principal means of communicating the ecclesiastical messages is the painting, not the mural. Some of the oldest frescos are in the lower one. This work continued with a number of different works and seems to have included a number of performers, some of whom are as well-known as Cimabue and Giotto, but many of whom are no longer known by name.
Aisle of the basilica. The light and roomy basilica is composed of a unique four-aisled church aisle with a cruciform and leaf yard, a transsept and a polyhedral apsis. Its four rib vaulting is alternating with gold starred gold vaulting on a dark green ground and canvases. In the second arch there are arches with the bust of Christ in front of St. Francis and the Virgin in front of St. John the Baptist.
Its vaulted ceiling gives us the four Latin physicians of the church: Saint Gregory opposite Saint Jerome and Saint Ambrose opposite Saint Augustine. At the western end of the transepts and the vestibule are numerous frescos by Cimabue and his studio (from about 1280). His glorious crucifixion with Saint Francis on his knee at the base of the cross again underlines the devotion to the Passion of Christ by Saint Francis.
Cimabue' s frescos soon suffers from moisture and deterioration. In front of him there were some decoration in the right top part of the transept by a (anonymous) North Master, probably an British painter (1267-1270). On both sides of the ship, severely affected by the 1997 quake, the top was adorned in two lines with a series of 32 Old Testament motifs (beginning with the creation of the world and ending with Joseph forgiving his brothers) and the New Testament (from the Annunciation to the women at the tomb), while the top of the entry panel is adorned with two Pentecostal and Ascension frescos.
As it took about six month to draw a cove of the aisle, various Romans and Tuscans, adherents of Cimabue, have staged this set of paintings by Giacomo, Jacopo Torriti and Pietro Cavallini. The most important ornaments, however, are the 28 frescos attributed to the young Giotto in the lower part of the aisle.
There are three frescos above Dao on each side of the ship, two in the eastern gallery next to the entry and two on the entry side. It was Giotto who used the legend of Maior, the story of Saint Francis of Saint Bonaventure (1266), to reconstitute the most important episodes in the lives of Saint Francis.
Probably the prototypical part of this series could have been the (now lost) St. Francis of Pietro Cavallini series in the San Francesco a Ripa in Rome. These pictures are so alive, as if Giotto had been a testimony of these incidents. However, Giotto's copyright is controversial because of the unclear ascriptions in the early work.
Numerous Italians have continued to endorse the work of Giotto and his work. Because of the small stylistic difference to Isaac's frescos, it is assumed that some or even all of these frescos were made by at least three different artists, using Giotto's initial concept: the master of the legend of Saint Francis (the main artist and likely leader of the cycle), the master of the funeral ceremonies of Saint Francis and the master of Cecilia.
On the first part of the roof are frescos by the "Four Physicians of the Church" (Jerome, Augustine, Gregory and Ambrose), ascribed either to a young Giotto or one of his aides. In the third panel are four heart-shaped medaillons of Christ, Mary, John the Baptist and Francis, by Jacopo Torriti.
A Gothic doorway with two gates and a nice rosette windows is the pointed facade of the basilica. Sideways to the lower basilica. Elias had planned the lower basilica as a huge vaultedry. There is a large rosette over the front of the front and two smaller ones, the "Eye of the most splendid cathedral in the world"; the ornamentation on the wood front was made by Ugolinuccio da Gubbio (around 1550) and that on the right by an unknown Umbrian painter (1573).
Storytelling shows the life of Saint Francis, Saint Clare, Saint Louis and Saint Anthony. Benedict XIV, who gave this temple the name Patriarchal Basilica and Cappella Papale, is standing on the veranda on the left there. In 2006, the Pope Benedict XVI's act of renunciation of the Patriarch of the West led to the basilica renaming itself as the papal basilica of St. Francis.
When you enter the lower basilica, on the other side of the portico you can see the St. Catherine of Alexandria hermitage, built around 1270. The church was extended by Gattapone da Gubbio and decorations were made at the cost of Cardinal Egidio Albornoz, the Pontifical Envoy of the Pontifical State (from 1350 to 1367).
In 1368-1369'Andreas de Bononia' drew the frescos with the eight chapters of St. Catherine's work. Andrea de' Bartoli (c. 1349 - 1369), the Albornoz courtier and not Andrea da Bologna, as usual but incorrectly ascribed.
Basilica of Bartolo d'Assisi (1344-1368) paints the statues in this church. Giovanni di Bonino of Assisi (mid-14th century) made the glazed window. There is the small St Sebastian hermitage on the lefthand side of the entry with a Giorgetti painting and scenes from the holy man's wall paintings of 1646 by G. Martelli (Irene takes charge of St Sebastian; St Sebastian before Domitian).
It is adorned on the lefthand side with pictures by Ottaviano Nelli (15th century) and a picture of Saint Christopher (Umbrian school, XIV century). Severely decaying frescos on the sides and the arches of the third part of this entry are the work of Cesare Sermei and G. Martelli (1645).
On the right side of the third part, the sanctuary is devoted to Saint Anthony the Abbot. Basilica below is made up of a middle aisle, with several side vaults with round vault. It is adorned with the oldest frescos of the cathedral by an unfamiliar painter, the Maestro di San Francesco.
On the right side they show five depictions of the Passion of Christ, on the right side five depictions of the life of St. James. Through this confrontation, the Franciscans wanted to help the Franciscans to come up with the concept of their foundress as the second Christ. There is a low blanket in gold and a low background in black.
The frescos, painted in annex on dried render, were finished around 1260-1263. Between 1270 and 1350, as the temple became increasingly popular, side chappels were added for aristocratic groups, which destroyed the frescos on the open partitions. In the first one on the lefthand side is the San Martino band devoted to Saint Martin of Tours.
The church was erected by the Cardinal Cardinal Partino da Montefiore and was adorned between 1317 and 1319 with ten frescos representing the work of Simone Martini. In all likelihood, this devotion related to the Cardinal's status as Cardinal-Priest of the Basilica of St. Martin "ai Monti" in Rome and was to be his tomb.
Probably not complete at the moment of Montefiore's demise (October 1312), it was buried in the neighbouring chapel of St. Louis. Martini also drew a travel sketch showing the Madonna with the Child and two Hungarian royal patron saints with a series of five accompanying Saint in the Chapel of St. Elizabeth (southern branch of the transept).
There is a small church on the other side devoted to Saint Peter of Alcantara. On the right are the chappels devoted to the saints: Ludwig of Toulouse and Stephan I of Hungary, with frescos by Dono Doni (1575) and paintings on glazing ascribed to Simone Martini. Constructed by Teobaldo Pontano (Bishop of Assisi from 1296 to 1329), this church contains some of the best works by the Giotto studio and perhaps by the master himself (around 1320).
On the side panels there are life of Mary Magdalene (above the portrayal of Teobaldo Pontano), while in the vaults there are round arches with bust of Christ, the Virgin, Mary Magdalene and Lazarus. At the end of the aisle is a semi-circular vaulted aisle.
On the right nave, frescos show the infancy of Christ, in part by Giotto and his studio, and the birth of the anonym Maestro di San Nicola. On the lower floor there are three frescos depicting St. Francis posthumous to the benefit of two orphans. Giotto's frescos were revolutionaries in their day and showed genuine human beings with emotion in a lifelike world.
Cimabue drew a picture of Our Lady enthroning and St. Francis (1280) on the side of the crossroad. It is probably the closest picture of Saint Francis. The Gothic-styled, statically -styled picture contrasts strongly with Giotto's vivid frescos. The chapel of Saint Nicholas of Bari, at the north end of the aisle, was ordered by the Pontifical Legatus Napoleon Orsini and contains the grave of the Cardinal's monk, Giovanni Orsini, who passed away between 1292 and 1294.
In between the grave and the stained-glass windows there is a travel tych with frescoes ascribed to the Giotto schools, depicting Our Lady with the Child and St. Francis and St. Nicholas. In 1307, the series that decorates the sanctuary was finished and consists of twelve paintings on the ceilings and sides depicting the lives and wonders of St. Nicholas; a dedicated sculpture of the sanctuary is depicted above the arc of the south-facing entrance: the Redeemer is honoured by Giovanni Orsini, presented by St. Nicholas, and by Napoleon Orsini, presented by St. Francis.
Colourful window shows Napoleon Christ, who was presented at the top, and his sister, who was presented to St. Nicholas in the lower area. On the south end of the transepts, a further shrine was erected by Archbishop Orsini consecrated to Saint John the Baptist, probably initially constructed for the grave of Napoleon Orsini himself, but the latter was never interred there and the grave was left empty.
The decoration of the hermitage consecrated to St. John the Baptist was never completed. Lorenzetti Pietro (or his workshop) made a fresco triptyque with a Madonna and a child with St. John the Baptist and Francis. From 1315 to 1330 the nave on the right was the work of the artist Pietro Lorenzetti and his studio (attributed by Vasari Pietro Lorenzetti and (wrongly) also to Giotto and Puccio Capanna).
His masterpiece is this circle of mtempera frescos. Pietro Lorenzetti created a Madonna and Child painting under the memorial "Crucifixion Scene", together with St. John the Evangelist and St. Francis (the so-called Madonna dei Tramonti). A confrontation of childhood and the frescos of the Holy Spirit underlines the parallels between the suffering of Christ and the sympathy of St. Maria De Mattias.
Formerly frescoed with allegorical scenes of the crucifixion of Stefano Fiorentino (destroyed in 1622), the vestibule is today adorned with a "Last Judgement" by Cesare Sermei di Orvieto (1609-1668). Canvases in the vault bezels (1315-20) show the triumph of St. Francis and three allegorical scenes of obedience, poverty and chastity by the so-called Maestro of the Vele (Master of the Vault of Assisi), a disciple of Giotto (c. 1330).
Giovanni di Bonino and his studio are credited with the glazed window of this lower basilica. At half height of the ship you can go down a staircase into the cemetery. The tomb of St. Francis was found in 1818. Its remnants were hid by Brother Elias to avoid the spreading of his reliquaries in mediaeval Europe.
On behalf of Pope Pius IX, a graveyard was erected under the lower basilica. There is an ash-tray at the entry of the tomb containing the remnants of Jacopa dei Settesoli. She was the most loyal girlfriend and benefactor of Saint Francis.
Beside the basilica is the Sacro Convento monastery with its impressive 53 Romanic arched ramparts and mighty abutments that support the entire area. Much of it was erected between 1474 and 1476 under the rule of Pope Sixtus IV, a Franciscan. "Benedict XVI's Totius Orbis for the coordination of pastoral activities and activities in the basilicas of Saint Francis and Saint Mary the Angel in Assisi".
"Stabilization of the Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi" (PDF). "Restoration of the Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi" (PDF). Assisi, hearth of the world. Assisi: High up ^ "Assisi". Assisi, hearth of the world. Assisi: Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi. The Upper Church of San Francesco in Assisi : sa décoration en tant que tâche et la genèse d'une nouvelle murale.
Basilica of St. Francis in Assisi. Frescos by Giotto, his predecessors and successors. Assisi's problem and the art of Giotto: a survey of the legend of Saint Francis in the High Church of San Francesco, Assisi.