Baku

The Baku

class="mw-headline" id="Etymologie">Etymologie[edit] Azerbaijan: IPA: [b??c?]) is the capitol and biggest metropolis of Azerbaijan as well as the biggest metropolis on the Caspian and the Caucasus with 2,262,600 inhabitants (January 1, 2018)..

.. Situated 28 meters below sealevel, Baku is the deepest situated state capitol in the word and at the same time the biggest town in the word below sealevel.

Situated on the south bank of the Absheron Peninsula, along the bay of Baku. Azerbaijan' s only capital is Baku. It is the science, culture and industry centre of Azerbaijan. Baku International Sea Trade Port is able to handle two million tonnes of general cargo and solid dry cargo per year.

In recent years, Baku has developed into an important location for hosting various kinds of event. Eurovision has been hosting the Eurovision Song Contest 2012, the European Games 2015, the Fourth Islamic Solidarity Games, the F1 Azerbaijan Grand Prix since 2016 and will be hosting UEFA Euro 2020. Ekaterinburg, Russia and Osaka, Japan. The town applies for the 2025 Ekaterinburg Exhibition.

It is known for its rough breezes, which is mirrored in its name, the "City of the Winds". The name Baku is based on the town' s Farsi name ???-???? B?d-kube, which means "wind-pounded city", where www. baku means "wind" and cube is rooted in the word www. cubidan, "to pound" and thus refers to a place where the breeze is powerful and throbbing.

The town is indeed known for its violent winters and hard wind. And this is mirrored in the city's epithet "City of the Winds". Arab origins relate to the town as Baku, Bakukh, Bakuya and Bakuye, all of which seem to come from a single persian name.

The town was written in Cyrillic during the Sowjet period with "????"[please specify][quote required] in Russian and "????" in Azerbaijani. Today, when Azerbaijan uses the Roman script, it is spelt with "Bak?". Starting from 84-96 A.D. about 100,000 years ago, the area of Baku and Absheron was the savannah with a wealth of wildlife and plants.

Archaeological finds from the Iron age were made near Bayil, and a small female statue of a small fishing animal was found in the old town. Other archaeological digs yielded various protohistoric sites, indigenous temples, sculptures and other artefacts on the site of the contemporary town and its surroundings that marked the fall of the Shirvanshas at the hand of the Safavids.

Baku and the rest of today's Azerbaijan were strongly affected by the Shirvan age. Solid strongholds were erected in Baku and the neighbouring cities between the twelfth and fourteenth century. Maiden Tower, Ramana Tower, Nardaran Fortress, Shagan Castle, Mardakan Castle, Round Castle and the Sabayil Castle on the Bay of Baku Islands were constructed during this time.

Baku's ramparts were also reconstructed and reinforced. Immediately the overthrow of Ak Koyunlu put the town in the hands of the new Iranian Safavid family, headed by Ismail I ( r. 1501-1524). In 1501 Ismail I besieged Baku and took it; he permitted the Shirvanshah to stay in office under Safavid's rule.

He was succeeded by Tahmasp I (r. 1524-1576), who withdrew the Shirvanshas entirely from government and made Baku part of the Shirvan provinces. The Baku stayed as an integral part of its kingdom and subsequent Teutonic rule for the next few hundred years, until the permanent assignment in the first half of the nineteenth cent.

Shirvan House, which had dominated Baku since the ninth millennium, was wiped out under Safavid domination. In those days, the town was surrounded by the line of thick ramparts flushed by the ocean on one side and shielded by a broad moat on the other.

In 1578-1590, during the Ottoman-Safavid war, the Ottomans temporarily took power over Baku; in 1607, it was placed under Iranian rule again. 13 ] In 1604, Baku stronghold was demolished by Shah Abbas I (r. 1588-1629). On Ateshgah. Zubov had sent 13,000 men to take Baku, and it was overwhelmed afterwards without opposition.

The 13th of June 1796 a Soviet fleet arrived in the bay of Baku and a troop regiment of Soviet forces was set up in the town. By March 1797 the imperial forces had abandoned Baku and the town was once again part of Qajar Iran. Drillings for crude began in the middle of the 19th century, when in 1846 the first crude drillings were carried out in the outskirts Bibi-Heybat of Baku.

Extensive exploratory drilling began in 1872, when the Soviet emperor's officials sold the plots of oil-rich lands around Baku to retail buyers. Soon thereafter, Baku attracted a number of Brazilian, UK, French, Belgium, Germans, Swedish and US investment professionals. There is an industry known as Black City, an olive grove that was built near Baku.

Prof. A. V. Williams Jackson von der Columbia University schrieb in seinem Werk From Constantinople to the Home of Omar Khayyam (1911) : The Baku is a town based on fuel, because its infinite sources of water of Naphta are the source of its livelihood, its sustenance, its wealth..... Currently, Baku is producing one fifth of the world's consumed amount of olive oils, and the huge production of olive oils from this unique town far exceeds that of any other county where olive oils are found.

At the beginning of the twentieth millennium, half of the amount of Baku crude oils traded on foreign exchanges was produced in Baku. 24 ] The booming economy helped Baku's mass economic development. After the October revolution in 1917, amid the turbulence of the First World War and the dissolution of the Russian Empire, Baku came under the rule of Baku Municipality, headed by Bolshevik Stepan Shahumyan, a vet.

In search of the use of interethnic conflict, the Bolsheviks provided inspiration for and approved the conduct of war in and around Baku in the early part of 1918. Bolsheviks and Dazhnaks, who wanted to gain access to the Baku roads, were confronted with hostile Azerbaijani groups during the notorious march days. Azerbaijan' s citizens sustained a devastating blow to the combined Baku-Soviet military force and were slaughtered by Dashnak crews on so-called March days.

Following the May 28, 1918 carnage, the Azerbaijani fraction of the Trans-Caucasian Sejm in Ganja declared the autonomy of the Liberal Democratic Republik of Azerbaijan (ADR), thus becoming the first democratically and profanely elected democracy with a Muslim minority. Soon thereafter the Azerbaijani armed force, supported by the Ottoman Army of Islam headed by Nuru Pasha, began its march to Baku and finally conquered the town from the loosely knit Bolsheviks, Esers, Dashnaks, Dashnaks, Menschewiks and Britain's army on 15 September 1918 under the leadership of General Lionel Dunsterville.

Following the Battle of Baku, Azerbaijani illegal forces, with the silent assistance of the Turkic commando, plundered and killed 10-30,000[28] of the Armenians of Baku for four consecutive day. Baku was soon declared the new capitol of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan. In April 28, 1920, the eleventh Red Army invade Baku and reinstated the Bolsheviks, making Baku the capitol of the Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic.

Baku had become of crucial strategical importance during the Second World War and the National Socialist occupation of the south-western Soviet Union by Germany. Indeed, the conquest of the Baku Oilfields was one of the primary objectives of Operation Edelweiss, which took place between May and November 1942. The Bundeswehr's nearest proximity to Baku in November 1942, however, was no nearer than about 530 kilometers to the north-west of Baku, lagging far behind the city's captivity, before being pushed back in mid-December 1942 during Soviet Operation Little Saturn.

The Absheron Peninsular Sattelite Picture, Baku is located on the west shore of the Caspian Sea. Near the town there are a number of mudslides ( Keyraki, Bogkh-bogkha, Lokbatan and others) and saline seas ( Boyukshor, Khodasan and so on). Average temperatures in July and August are 26 per day.

Baku's cityscape is characterised by many municipalities. Most Muslims are Shiite, and the Republic of Azerbaijan has the second highest Shiite share of the total Muslim population after Iran. According to Art. 48 of the Constitution, Azerbaijan is a secular state and guarantees liberty of religion.

Zaoroastrianism, which has died out in the town and in the whole territory to this day, had a long tradition in Azerbaijan, and the Zoroastrian New Year (Nowruz) is still the major day of celebration in the town and in the whole of Azerbaijan. Baku's petroleum industry is currently booming with the opening of the vast Aseri-Chirag-Guneshli area ( SOCAR's shallow Gunashli, lower areas by a BP-led consortium), the Shah Deniz natural-gas field, the extension of the Sangachal terminal and the building of the BTC pipeline.

One of the most important travel destination in the Caucasus is Baku, with urban centres that generated 7 million euro in 2009. 62 ] Many large global chain hoteliers are present in the town. It has many favourite touristic and entertaining attractions such as the downtown Fountains Square, One and Thousand Nights Beach, Shikhov Beach and Oil Rock.

Baku became the home of the highest flag pole in the word on 2 September 2010, with the opening of the National Flag Square, according to the Guinness Book of Records. On May 24, 2011, however, Baku was only 3 meters behind the town of Dushanbe in Tajikistan.

There are several Baku commercial centres; the best known are Park Bulvar, Genclik Mall, Metro Park, 28 MALL, Aygun Town and AF MALL. It is ranked number 48 on the 2011 Mercer Human Resource Consulting ranking of the most costly towns in the globe. There are many conveniences in the town, offering a broad spectrum of culture options, from a wealth y offering a locally based drama collection to an internationally oriented one.

There are also many museum like the Baku Museum of Modern Arts and the Azerbaijan State Museum of History, especially with historic artefacts and arts. Most of the city's culture places were commemorated in 2009 when Baku was named the Islamic Capital of Culture. 67 ] Baku was also selected as hosting the Eurovision Dance Contest 2010.

Baku's renowned places of culture comprise the Azerbaijani State Philharmonic, the Azerbaijani Academic State Opera and the Ballet Theater. Azerbaijani cinema is the principal film theater. Among the festival's are the Baku Film Festival, Baku Jazz Festival, Novruz Festival, Gül Bayram? (Flower Festival) and the National Theater Festival. 68 ][69] The Baku Expo Center presents numerous regional and foreign exhibits.

The most popular hammam (traditional bath) in Baku is called Teze Bey. Located in the centre of Baku, it was completed in 1886 and completely renovated and modernised in 2003. Originally the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 14th cent. and rebuilt in 1881. Age Mikayil hammam was build in the eighteenth and eighteenth hundreds by Haji Agha Mikayil in Kichik Gala Street in the old town (icherisheher).

Baku's old town, also known as the walled city of Baku, relates to the old Baku town. The section is scenic with its labyrinth of small lanes and old buildings: the paved roads past the Shirvanshas Palace, two caravans, the spas and the Juma Moscow (which once housed the National Carpet and Art Museum of Azerbaijan, but is now a Moscow again).

Azerbaijan' s major part of its audiovisual enterprises (including TV, newspapers and radios such as Azad Azerbaijan TV, Ictimai TV, Lider TV and Region TV) are based in Baku. Movies The World Is Not Enough and The Diamond Arm are playing in the town, while Amphibian Man features several Old Town scene.

Among the most powerful Baku papers are the Azadliq newspaper, Zaman (The Time), Bakinskiy Rabochiy (The Baku Worker), Echo and the English-language Baku Today. The Baku offers a pulsating night life. There are many nightclubs throughout the town that are open until dusk. Club with easterly flair offer delicacies from Azerbaijani kitchen to typical sounds of our town.

The Baku Boulevard is a footpath that parallels the beach of Baku. Bordering the new International Center of Mugham and the Music Well. The Baku City Circuit is hosting a Formula 1 event. Baku has organised 36 big sports competitions since 2002 and has chosen them to organise the 2015 European Games.

93 ] Baku will also adult the interval content of the Islamic Solidarity Games in 2017. Synergy Baku Cycling Project takes part in the Tour d'Azerbaïdjan, a 2. 2. multi-stage bike event on the UCI Europe Tour. Baku Olympic Stadium is the city's biggest sports centre with 68,700 seats and was built in 2015.

Neftchi Baku, Inter Baku and Qarabaq FC are the city's three most important teams, the first of which has eight premiership league victories, making Neftchi Azerbaijan's most popular team. It also has several top and local league teams, such as AZAL and Ravan in the Prime League. Tofiq Bahramov Stadion, the city's second biggest sports arena, houses a number of national and foreign contests and was the city's most important sports center long before the Baku Olympic Stadion was built.

Baku is featured in the Azerbaijan Women's Volleyball Super League by Rabita Baku, Azerrail Baku, Lokomotiv Baku and Aseryol Baku. There are many Baku campuses, as well as a number of Baku and Baku mills. The Baku State Unversity, the first establishment among the U.S. and foreign institutions in Azerbaijan, was opened in 1919 by the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan.

During the early years of the Soviets, Baku already had the Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, Azerbaijan Medical University and Azerbaijan State Economic University. After the war, other higher education establishments such as the Technical University of Azerbaijan, the Azerbaijani University of Languages and the Azerbaijani University of Architecture and Civil Engineering were founded. Following 1991, when Azerbaijan became independent from the USSR, the collapse of the communist regime resulted in the emergence of a number of privately owned organizations, among them Qafqaz University and Khazar University, which are currently regarded as the most renowned university.

Besides the privately-owned university, the administration founded the Academy of Public Administration, the Diplomatic Academy of Azerbaijan and various armyademies. Baku State University and Azerbaijan State Economic University are the biggest in terms of students. The Baku Music Academy and the Azerbaijan National Conservatoire in Baku, founded at the beginning of the 1920s, are also part of the network.

Azerbaijan' s National Academy of Sciences, the most important state research organisation in Azerbaijan, is also based in Baku. Baku also has a number of library facilities, many of which contain extensive historical document libraries from the Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman, Soviet and other civilizations of the past.

Among the most important historical collection of documents are the Nizami Museum of Azerbaijani Literature, the National Library of Azerbaijan, the Mirza Alakbar Central Library, the Samad Vurgun Library and the Baku Presidential Library. There are many publicsector and privately owned health centres, clinical centres and labs within its borders, as well as a number of research centres.

Many of these institutions have state-of-the-art equipments that have helped the recent boom of "medical tourism" in Baku, especially from post-Soviet states such as Georgia and Moldova, whose administrations are sending low-income citizens to the cities for low-cost health care and surgery. Baku is proud to have spawned a disproportionately large number of distinguished personalities in the areas of science, art and other disciplines due to its temporary period of great affluence, the greatest metropolis in the Caucasus and one of the most ethnic and cultural varied cities in the USSR.

Baku was the birthplace and upbringing of the world-famous violoncellist Mstislav Rostropovich and the world-famous musician Garry Kasparov. Azerbaijani Republic: "Administrative, densities and areas and area sizes by region as of 1 January. Archives from the orginal from 24. November 2007. Returned on July 17, 2009. Thomas de Waal (2010).

This is Oxford University Press. p. 16. Archives from the orginal on 14 November 2009. Returned on November 21, 2009. November 13, 2009. Archives from the orginal on 23. November 2009. Returned on November 21, 2009. Baku Harbour. Brought back on December 23, 2010. Archives from the originals, 13 October 2007. Returned on July 25, 2009.

Azerbaijan - Surrounded city of Baku with the Shirvanshah Palace..." Archives from the originals on 2 January 2008. Brought back on October 14, 2007. ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? Returned on June 25, 2006 Filed on June 20, 2008 on the Wayback Machine. Strategic assessment of Euro-Asian trade and transport in Azerbaijan as a regional hub in Central Eurasia.

"IN THE SYSTEM OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS. Returned on June 30, 2015. Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Azerbaijan - Story -ography. britannica.com. Returned on March 9, 2015. Border policy and international borders of Iran: Returned on December 1, 2011. A border region in transition: Russia and Azerbaijan. Colombia University Press, 1995. U.S. University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0-8122-1616-4, p. 236.

"Baku Royal Highway Patrol." Azerbaijan' s vision. Baku Trade Fair and the Unfair and the Unfaking of the Azerbaijani Borderland, 1922-1930?, Ab Imperio, Vol 2013, Ausgabe 4, S. 79-112. Azerbaijan' s face. news.az. Returned on July 22, 2011. Baku White City - Sustainability. www.bakuwhitecity.com. Bounced 2017-04-25.

Archives from the orginal on 2 December 2010. Returned on November 17, 2010. "Global ICT Conference: 25-28 November 2004 : Baku, Azerbaijan". Archives from the originals on 19 July 2011. Brought back on April 17, 2010. Baku, Azerbaijan. Returned on February 25, 2013. March 19, 2010. Archives from the orginal on April 2, 2010.

Brought back on April 17, 2010. Archives from the originals on 6 July 2011. Brought back on April 17, 2010. Azerbaijan - Russian and Post-Soviet Times. Returned on December 17, 2011. July 10, 2006. Brought back on April 17, 2010. Archive date: January 19, 2012 in the Wayback Machine. Azerbaijan' 1999'.

Returned on June 30, 2015. Azerbaijan' 2009 Ethnic Composition". Returned on June 30, 2015. Brought back on April 17, 2010. Archives from the originals on 1 July 2007. Returned on July 15, 2007. International Azerbaijan Magazine. Returned on July 11, 2010. Natig Aliyev's story of the oil in Azerbaijan. Archives from the orginal on 24. April 2009.

Returned on May 22, 2009. Aghazade, Emil (July 4, 2005). Returned on May 12, 2011. "What kind of Azerbaijan' s assets were entrusted to what kind of overseas bank? Archives from the orginal on 18 May 2011. Brought back on December 6, 2010. Hotels in Baku made 6.8 million euro last year". Archives from the orginal on 17 September 2010.

Brought back on April 17, 2010. Archives from the orginal on September 4, 2010. Brought back on September 2, 2010. Archives from the orginal on September 4, 2010. Brought back on September 2, 2010. Azadl?q 48-ci Azadl?q, 13 July 2011, Azadl?q Radio. Returned on 13 July 2011". July 13th, 2011. Returned on December 17, 2011.

Azerbaijan Business Center. "Final celebration of the cultural year "Baku - Islamic Capital of Culture 2009" in Azerbaijan". Archives from the orginal from 11. August 2011. Brought back on February 5, 2010. Archives (in Russian) Posted on May 24, 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Azerbaijan wants to join Earth Hour. www.news.az. Archives from the orginal on 29 November 2014.

Returned on November 17, 2014. Returned on November 17, 2014. Brought back on April 17, 2010. Returned on April 25, 2011. Surrounded city of Baku with Shirvanshah Palace and Jungfernturm - UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Returned on May 22, 2009. Cadwalladr, Carole (15 May 2011). "Blue and Jedward in the middle table".

Archives from the originals on 23 June 2011. Returned on May 15, 2011. â??Azerbaijan wins the Eurovision with Racing Scaredâ?. Returned on July 8, 2013. Azerbaijan Jazz Emergence. Archives from the orginal on 13. April 2010. Brought back on April 17, 2010. "Azerbaijan Jazz History". Brought back on April 17, 2010.

Baku International Jazz Festival opened in Azerbaijan". Archives from the orginal on 11 May 2010. Brought back on April 17, 2010. Baku International Jazz Festival Official Site. Archives from the originals on 28 March 2010. Brought back on April 17, 2010. The Director General welcomes the importance of vibrant tradition at the Mugham Festival in Baku, Azerbaijan.

Brought back on April 17, 2010. Battlefield 4, a devious Baku display. xboxplayers.com. Archives from the originals on 13 May 2013. Returned on May 19, 2013. About Baku and Azerbaijan. Archives from the orginal on 12 October 2009. Brought back on April 17, 2010. Beograd na Vrhu list Gradova sa na jajboljim www. gradova.com provided (in Serbian) Filed on November 15, 2009 at the Wayback Machine.

Returned on June 30, 2015. â??Azerbaijan is a land known for its passion for sports and sportinessâ?. www.baku2015.com. Archives from the originals, 26 September 2013. Returned on 27 January 2014. <font color="#ffff00">Azerbaijan is applying for the Chess Olympiad <font color="#ffff00">news.az. Archives from the orginal on 5 May 2010. Returned on August 16, 2010.

Baku Open 2010". today.az. "Chess player from 11 different nations take part in the "Baku Open 2010". Archives from the originals on August 17, 2010. Returned on August 16, 2010. Finished Four feminminile a Baku (in Italian) Archives on July 22, 2011 at the Wayback Machine. WTA Tournament Calendar 2011". Archives from the orginal on 10 November 2010.

Brought back on November 26, 2010. Azerbaijan applies for the Olympic Games 2020 in Baku - Olympic Games - ESPN". September 1, 2011. Returned on September 15, 2011. Returned on June 30, 2015. Meidment, Neil (March 3, 2011). Returned on March 4, 2011. "MANGAN is taking a taxi to Azerbaijan". Returned on March 4, 2011. 1,000 London cabs for Azerbaijan.

Returned on March 4, 2011. Baku Metro Chief: Archives from the orginal from January 20, 2012. Brought back on April 17, 2010. Brought back on August 14, 2009. Returned on April 2, 2017. Returned on April 2, 2017. Returned on 26 January 2011. Baku seaport expected for the Anzali-Baku cruise". February 18, 2010. Brought back on April 17, 2010.

Archives from the originals, 29 March 2010. Brought back on April 17, 2010. Baku Seaport. Archives from the originals on 16 April 2008. Brought back on March 7, 2008. Azerbaijan, Baku. m-hesse.com. Archives from the originals on 15 January 2011. Returned on February 1, 2011. 14-ü 14-ü 14-ü 14-ü 14-ü Fevral?n H?rbi Hava Qüvv?l?rinin (HHQ) Hava Qüvv?l?rinin (HHQ) zaranma guünüdür (in Azerbaijani) Filed on July 6, 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

Azerbaijan: Energetic, Healthcare Poor. Returned on April 25, 2011. It'?s a big surprise. Twin-cities of Azerbaijan. Withdrawn 2013-08-09. Baku law enforcement agencies' external affairs directions". Archives from the originals on 14 July 2007. Returned on July 15, 2007. Brought back on February 4, 2010.

July 25, 2008. Brought back on February 4, 2010. "The Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan in Italy". Archives from the orginal on 23. May 2011. Brought back on April 17, 2010. Houston and Baku. 68-71 Azerbaijan International. Archives from the orginal on 2 February 2010. Brought back on February 4, 2010. Archives from the originals on 7 February 2013.

Bounced 2013-07-29. Archives from the originals on 19 July 2011. Brought back on April 17, 2010. International Relations. Archives from the originals on 28 June 2012. Bounced 2013-07-08. Archives from the originals on 7 December 2013. Returned on April 10, 2017. Baku City Executive Power (in Russian). Brought back on April 8, 2008.

Commons Wikimedia has related Baku related news items. The Wikivoyage has a Baku guidebook. The UNESCO/ICOMOS (29 April 2003). "unesco-icomos mission in the walled city of Baku" (PDF).

Auch interessant

Mehr zum Thema