??, Syrian-Aramaic: ?????) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a town in the Anti-Lebanon promontory easterly of the Litani River in the Beqaa Valley, about 85 km N. from Beirut and 75 km. from Damascus. Baalbek-Hermel Governorate's capital, Baalbek has a total of about 82,608,[quote needed] mostly Shiite Muslims, followed by Sunnite Muslims and a Christian majority.
The Baalbeck International Festival takes place here every year. Heliopolis' Heliopolis is an installment with "I Baalbeck", the Latinization of the Grecian H?lioúpolis (??????????), which means "Sun City" in relation to the local religious cults. However, Ammianus Marcellinus notes that the former "Assyrian" name of the Levantine cities was still used alongside the formal Grecian name of Alexander's heirs.
Helios was both the Helios in the heavens and their personalization as Helios. Haddu was more often identified with Zeus or Jupiter or just named "Great Heliopolis",[a] but the name may be related to the Egyptian union of Ba?al with their great-god Ra.[b] He was sometimes referred to as Heliopolis in Syria or Coelesyria (Latin: Heliopolis Syriaca or Syriae) to differentiate him from his eponym in Egypt.
Under Catholicism his title as Heliopolis in Phoenicia is differentiated from his former Rome provinces Phoenice. This name Bi??? al-?Az?z, which is carried by the Baalbek tableland, since it refers to a former sun goddess and not to later humans, the Aziz.
It was known as Heliopolis in ancient Greece and Rome. The city still has some of the best-preserved remains of the Romans in Lebanon, one of the greatest temple of the world. They worshiped Jupiter, Venus and Bacchus as equivalent of the Canaanite divinities Hadad, Atargatis. The temple's plans and designs have a strong influence on the location, as they differ from classical Latin designs.
Baalbek's aetimology has been undecidedly discussed since the eighteenth centuary. Steiners suggests a semiitic adaptation of "Lord Bacchus" from the classic temples group. Tell Baalbek, part of a series of valleys to the north of the Beqaa River basin (Latin: Coelesyria), has been inhabited almost continuously for the last 8-9000 years.
In the Canaanites, the temple was largely dedicated to the Heliopolitical Triad: a manly deity ( (Ba?al), his wife (Ashtart) and their boy (Adon). Probably the site of today's temple of Jupiter was the centre of the previous devotion, since its shrine was on the top of the mound and the remainder of the shrine was uplifted.
According to Muslim legend, the Jerusalem is said to have been a Solomon's palace[c], assembled by Djinni and presented to the Queen of Sheba as a marriage present; its real Latin origins were hidden until the time of the visiting of the Pole Radziwi?? through the mediaeval fortresses of the fortress.
Heliopolis and its surrounding area in the second and third century. After Persia was conquered by Alexander the Great in the 330 B.C., Baalbek (under his Greek name Heliopolis) belonged to the Diadoch empires of Egypt and Syria. While the colonists of the Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Heliopolitana may have already reached the site at the age of Caesar, they were more the vets of the Fifth and Eighth Legions under Augustus, during which they housed a citadel.
In ancient times, the ancient haddu of the town' s sanctuary was first associated with the veneration of the Grecian solar gods Helios and then with the Grecian and Romans heavenly gods under the names "Heliopolitan Zeus" or "Jupiter". Today's Jupiter-Tempel probably substituted an early one with the same foundation;[d] it was built in the middle of the 1st c. and probably finished around 60 AD.
Of these, one was brought to Rome by Kaiser Élagabalus, a former preacher of the Holy Spirit in the near Emesa, who built a shrine for it on the Palatinate Hill. It was a well-known place of oracles and pilgrimages, from where the worship was spreading far beyond the borders, with epigraphs of the heliopolitical gods found in Athens, Rome, Pannonia, Veneto, Gaul and near the Wall in Great Britain.
From the beginnings of Augustus' rule in the end of the 1. cent. BC until the ascent of Christianity in the 4. mill. Baalbek was described as a "wonder of the world" by the annals of John Malalas of Antioch, which attribute most of the building to Antoninus Pius of the 2. ct. but it is not certain how accurate his work is.
During this period, the compound was home to three monasteries at Tell Baalbek: one for Jupiter Heliopolitanus (Ba?al), one for Venus Heliopolitana (Ashtart) and a third for Bacchus. There is a third statue of the heliopolitical triad, Mercury (Adon or Seimios), on a neighbouring high. Finally, the place competed with Praeneste in Italy as the two greatest shrines of the occident.
66][f] In 215 A.D., his wife Julia Domna and his sons Caracalla traveled to Egypt and Syria; epigraphs in their honor at this place could date from this time; Julia was a Syrian mother whose sire, like Elagabalus, had been an Emesanian" preacher of the sun". During the early fourth centuries, the deacon Kyrill disfigured many of the gods in Heliopolis; he was murdered and (allegedly) cannibalized.
At about the same period Constantine, although not yet a Christian, destroyed the Divine Office, built a church in its place and forbade the old tradition of the natives to prostitute their wives before the wedding. Jupiter-Tempel, already heavily affected by earthquake, was torn down under Theodosius in 379 and substituted (now lost) by another one. Stone from the heathen compound was used.
Easter chronicles say that he was also in charge of the destruction of all the smaller churches and castles in the town. Around the year 400 Rabbula, the prospective Edessa Archbishop, tried to be tortured by the disturbance of the Gentiles of Baalbek, but was only cast over the staircase of the phed.
Michael the Syrian said that the Heliopolit' s gilded hero of Jupiter can still be seen during the reigns of Justin II (560s and 570s), and until his capture by the Muslims it was known for its buildings, memorials and parks. A Baalbek-Moschee c. Baalbek was taken by the Islamic military in 634 (AH 13), in 636 or at Abu ?Ubaidah after the Yarmouk battle in 637 (AH 16),[quote required] either peaceably and by arrangement or after a valiant defence and with 2,000 pounds (57 kg) gilt, 4,000 pounds (110 kg) white, 2000 semi-veests and 1000 sabers.
In 748 the destroyed temples were looted by the Damascus Marwan II Kaliph with great force, then demolished and largely deserted. It is said that in the middle of the 10th c. there were "gates of castles of stone and high pillars of marble", and it was the "most amazing" and "most remarkable" place in all of Syria.
In 1138, after the killings of his brethren, Mohammed was able to conquer Damascus and gave Baalbek to his Vizir Unur. Zengi, Aleppo's father and Mahmud' step-father, Zengi, besieged Baalbek with 14 cats. Zengi renegotiated with Muhammad in December and offered to swap Baalbek or Homs for Damascus, but Unur persuaded the man from Atlabeg to deny himself.
After Ata' s assassination, his cousin Dahhak, Emiir des Wadi al-Taym, reigned Baalbek. In 1154 he had to cede it to Nur ad-Din after Ayyub had successfully plotted against Abaq from his farms near Baalbek. During the mid-12th centuries Idrisi referred to the two Baalbek sanctuaries and the legends of their creation under Solomon; it was attended by the Jew traveller Benjamin of Tudela in 1170.
The Baalbek fortress was used as a prison for crusaders taken as POWs by the Zengids. In 1170 he destroyed the Baalbek wall, and although Nur ad-Din was repairing it, a four-month besiege in 1174 led his young legacy Isma?il to hand it over to Saladin. After Saladin took over Damascus at the invitational of his own Gov. Ibn al-Muqaddam, he was awarded the Baalbek diocese after the Ayyubids won the Hama horns in 1175.
In August, they beat Saladin's older brother Turan Shah at Ayn al-Jarr and pillaged Baalbek. After Turan Shah was dismissed for neglect of his responsibilities in Damascus, however, he claimed his parents' home in Baalbek as remuneration.
However, he did not allow Turan Shah to keep Baalbek for very long by ordering him to guide the Egypt forces who returned home in 1179 and to appoint him a Sinekure in Alexandria. Then Baalbek was given to his cousin Farrukh Shah, whose dynasty governed it for the next half cent. In 1250, when As-Salih Ayyub's follower Turan Shah was assassinated, al-Nasir Yusuf, the Aleppo Saxon, conquered Damascus and called for Baalbek's capitulation.
In 1260 the Mongol general Kitbuqa took Baalbek and disassembled its fortification. But later that year Qutuz, the Egyptian Emperor, conquered the Mongols and placed Baalbek under the dominion of their emirate in Damascus. The majority of the still preserved beautiful mosques and fortresses of the town date from the time of Qalawun the Qalawun dynasty in the 1280s.
Ninety-nine hundred and fifty thousand lives were lost and 1,500 homes, 131 stores, 44 fruit gardens, 17 stoves, 11 windmills, 4 waterworks, the Mosque and 13 other sacred and pedagogical monuments were destroyed. Baalbek and the remainder of Syria were captured by the Ottoman Emperor Selim the Grimm in 1516. Acknowledging their importance among the Shiites of the Beqaa valley, the Ottomans gave the Harfush Sanjaks of Homs and municipal illtizam licences to the Harfush in Baalbek.
Nevertheless, Baalbek did not remain a target for a traveler who was not accompanied by an armoured sentry. The Ottomans began the Ottoman Empire's immediate management in 1850, making Baalbek a kasa under Damascus Eyalet and his gubernator to a kamam. On November 1, 1898, Emperor William II of Germany and his bride crossed Baalbek on their way to Jerusalem.
The splendour of the ancient Rome and the sad state of the town. In those days it was anticipated that catastrophes, freezing winters and the robbery of construction material by the inhabitants of the town would briefly destroy the surviving rubble. Although they found nothing before the Baalbek occupation of Rome, Puchstein and his colleagues worked until 1904 and created a thoroughly investigated and thoroughly illuminated set of vol.
120 ] Later excavation under the large courtyard of Rome brought three bones and a remnant of 6th to 4th century Iranian ceramics. "Baalbek with its enormous buildings is one of the most beautiful specimens of imperial romanticism at its height ", UNESCO declared Baalbek a world cultural heritage site in 1984.
124 ] When the commission described the site, it wished the reserve to encompass the whole city within the Arabian ramparts and the south-western suburb between Bastan-al-Khan, the Rome site and the Mameluk of Ras-al-Ain. The most recent purification work on the Jupiter Temple revealed the pit at its rim, whose investigation reduced the date of Tell Baalbek's colonization to the PPNB neolithic.
On 19 June 1902 Baalbek was annexed to the DHP, the French rail licence in Ottoman Syria. 127 ] It was a stop on the normal track line between Riyaq in the southern part and Aleppo (now in Syria) in the northern part. Shortly before the First World War the populace was about 5000, 2000 Sunnis and Shiites Mutawalis and 1000 Orthodox and Maronites.
The Baalbek still has its station, but the company was closed in the 1970' s, initially because of the war. The Baalbek was a main destination with more than 70 launched bomb. 129][i] Baalbek was a stronghold of Hezbollah at that time: air bombardments on 17 July wrecked a creamery, petrol station and Hezbollah office.
130 ] On the night of August 1, several hundred IDF troops attacked Baalbek and Dar al-Hikma or Hikmeh Hospital in Jamaliyeh in the northern region ("Operation Sharp and Smooth"). A further 9 plaintiffs were murdered on 7 August by a strikes in the heart of Brital, just to the South of Baalbek, and by the ensuing assault on the vehicle that left the area.
Situated on a huge[vaguely] elevated square built 5 meters (16 feet) above a former T-shaped pedestal of pedestal, stairwell and foundations. There is a second set of monolithes with the well-known "Three Stones" (Greek: ????????, Trílithon): a set of three bricks, each over 19 metres long, 4.3 metres high and 3.
It was a little higher than the temples, so no raising was necessary to move the rocks. Covering approximately 1.2 or 1.6 hectares to the west, the large square courtyard comprises the major shrine for fire victims, with tessellated floors to the northeast and southeast, an open ground room and three galleries 17 feet (5.2 m) in width and 9.1 meters in height, two running eastward and westward and the third linking them northward and southward, carrying all epigraphs indicating their occupancy by ancient Romans.
Inscriptions prove that the courtyard was once decorated with portaits of Marcus Aurelius' daughters Sabina, Septimius Severus, Gordian and Velius Rufus, consecrated by the town' s ancient Romans. Bacchus' temple, unjustly attributed to Jupiter[m], may have been finished under Septimius Severus in the 190s, as his coin was the first to show it next to Jupiter's temple.
It is the best conserved building of the Shrine, as the other debris from its remains sheltered it. Encircled by 42 columns - 8 at each end and 15 on each side - the template is almost 20 meters (66 feet) high. Inside the shrine is a 30 metre (98 ft) ship and an 11 metre (36 ft) shrine or adytate on a 2 metre (5 ft) higher elevated 13 step deck.
It was used as a kind of dojon for the mediaeval Arabian and Turkic fortresses, although its east stairs were eventually abandoned after 1688. Heliopolis' old ramparts had a perimeter of less than 6 km. Many of the preserved fortresses around the compound date from the thirteenth c., carried out by Mamluk Saxon Qalawun after the destruction of the former defences by the Mongolian armies under Kitbuqa.
First round of fortification were two ramparts south-west of the temples of Jupiter and Bacchus. Some of the materials from the remains will be worked into a ruin just south of the city centre and probably also in Qubbat Duris on the Damascus-river. During the nineteenth and nineteenth centuries, a "shell roof" from the surrounding area was used as a mussel roof to show the local people the way of Mecca for their mornings.
It was a diocese under the reign of the Romans and the Byzantines, but it was annihilated by Islam. The Eastern Catholics (Byzantine Rite) founded another Eparchy of Baalbek in 1701, which was transferred in 1964 to the present Melkitic Greek-Catholic Archeparchy of Baalbek.
The old archdiocese was only nominell restorated in the Roman Empire (no later than 1876) as titular archbishop of Heliopolis (Latin) / Eliopoli (Curiate Italian), degraded to titular episcopate in 1925, promotion in 1932 and renamed in 1933 as (non-metropolitan) titular archdiocese of Heliopolis in Phoenicia (avoidance of egypical confusion).
The Baalbek is a partnership: The name also appeared in the brightened shape of Balanios and Baal Helion in notes that described the deeds of Theodosius' rule. Leap to the top ^ The claim of the ancient priest Heliopolis is a descendent of Ras Kult in Iunu, however, is almost certainly wrong.
Daniel Lohmann writes that "for want of remnants of the architectural features of the temples, it can be expected that the building of the patio was never finished or completely demolished before the new building was started...."[page required] "The incomplete pre-Roman shrine building was integrated into a monumentalization mastersplan.
The early royal Jupiter Shrine, apparently provoked by the already enormous pre-Roman building, shows both a grandiose architecture and a building method in the first half of the first cent. A.D.". Spring up^ Coins from Septimius Severus carry the legendary COL-HEL-I-O-M-H: Colonia Heliopolis Iovi Optimo Maximo Helipolitano. Remarkable Worth Besucher were Baumgarten (1507), Belon (1548), Thévet (1550), von Seydlitz (1557), Radziwi? (1583), Quaresmio (1620), Monconys (1647), de la Roque (1688), Maundrell (1699), Pocke (1738),
Leap up ^ "Current measurements and interpretations show that a pre-Roman soil was about 5 metres deeper than the latter one. Jumping up ^ The stairs are shown unbroken on a medallion from the time of the Arab Philip. Leap to the top ^ The epigraphs were clearly visible in the eighteenth-century but became the most popular in the nineteenth century:
I. Leap up ^ It was also attributed to Apollo and Helios. Jumping up ^ The ledge of the exaktrum in the North West edge is partly plastic and partly simple. In the 1870s and 1980s, Metawali janitor Um Kasim asked Kasim to use the burnt down olives for the vow to St. Barbara.
Leap upwards ^ "Mohafazah de Baalbek-Hermel". High jumping by ^ Wolfgang Gockel; Helga Bruns (1998). The Syria-Lebanon region (illustrated). Highjump ^ Judith Palmer Harik (2005). Leap upwards ^ KTU 1. Skip upwards ^ KTU 1.100.3. Highjump ^ Mamm. Leap upwards ^ Brit. Highjump ^ Eusebius, Theophania, 2.14.
Hop up ^ Josh. Jumps high ^ 1 King 9:17-18. Bounce high ^ Song of Songs 8:11. Bounce high ^ Amos 1:5, bounce high ^ 1 King 7:2-7. Up ^ Josephus, Ant. Heave up ^ Pliny, Nat. Skip up to: a to Ptolemy, Geogr. Leap up ^ Rowland (1956).
Skip high to: a d e Macrobius, Saturnalia, Vol. I, Ch. 23. Rump up Macrobius, compiled in Cook. High jumping Ulpian, De Censibus, Bk. I. Jumping upwards ^ Sociology, Hist. Jumping up Theodoret, Hist. Skip upwards ^ Chron. High Jumping Stefan Winter (March 11, 2010).
Skip up to: a bar Wiegand (1925). Leap up ^ "Baalbek", World Heritage List, New York: World Heritage Centre, 2015, accessed on 8 September 2015. Leap up ^ Michel M. Alouf - History of Baalbek 1922 "After the Ommiads defeated and murdered Hossein, his wife and daughter were taken to Damascus; but Kholat was exiled in Baalbek.
" Nelles Guidebook Syria - Lebanon - Wolfgang Gockel, Helga Bruns - 1998 - Page 202 3886181057 "Under a blank cupola towards the city, the ruins of Kholat, Hussein's daugther and grandchild of. "Wikimedia Commons has a relationship with Baalbek. Wiki voyage has a guidebook for Baalbek.
Heliopolis ("1862"), A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and Geography, New York: Harper & Bros. K., T. (2010), "Baalbek", dans Grafton, Anthony ; Most, Glenn W. ; Settis, Salvatore, The Classical Tradition, Cambridge : "Ba'albek", Cook's Tourists' Handbook for Palestine and Syria, Londres : Donne, William Bodham (1878), "Helio?polis Syriae", dans Smith, William, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, Vol. I, Londres :
Moritz (1913), "Baalbek", Encyclopedia of Islam: Adam, Jean-Pierre; Mathews, Anthony (1999), Roman Building: Analogies in the construction techniques between the temples of Heliopolis (Baalbek) and Jerusalem", Levante (No. 1), pp. 38-50, accessed on 13 March 2013.