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Asha[; also referred to as archta; Avestan: a?a/arta) is a term of card-nal meaning[1] for Zoroasterian theory andology. Morally, a?a/arta is what is referred to as "the crucial denominational conception of Zoroastrianism". 2 ] The opposite of Avestan Aza is druy, "deceit, lie. In general, it is summarised in accordance with its conceptual implication of "truth" and "right(eousness)", "order" and "right working".

It is also the actual name of the godliness Asha, the Amesha Spenta, which is the hypostasy or "genius"[5] of "truth" or "justice". The younger Avesta refers to this character more as Asha Vahishta (A?a Vahi?ta, Artta Vahi?ta), "Best Truth". In Amesha Spenta later lyrics consequently use the nickname "Best", only once in the Gathas "best" is an adjective written by a?a/arta.

The Vedic equivalents of a?a and a?a are both from Proto-Indo-Iranian *?tá- "Truth",[6] which in turn is proto-Indo-European *h2r-to- "correctly connected, correctly, correctly, truly", from the roots *h2ar. In ancient Iran, the term is testified as art. As his Vedic Sanskrit co-usin daruh seems to be derived from the PIE roots *dhreugh, which is also found in Farsi r?? / d [o]r?? "lie", German delusion "fraud, deception".

10 ] In Avestan druj- has a derivative, the adjective dr?guua?t- (Later Avestan druua?t-), "Partisan of dezeption, deceiver", for which the superlatives draoji?ta- and perhaps the comparing draoj(ii)ah- are testified (Kellens, 2010, p. 69 ff.). A?a" cannot be accurately reproduced by a singular words in another language"[3], but can be summed up as follows:

Many people translate both Avestan a?a/arta and Vedic ?tá- as "truth", as this best mirrors both the initial sense of the concept and the rejection of their particular anthony. Contrary to Avestan a?a/arta is druj-, "lie". " Similar are the contrasts of Vedic ?tá- án?ta- and jruh, also "lie".

Ahura Mazda's synonyms of àa and "existence" overlap with the inventory of Ahura Mazda as originator (of life itself). To the extent that untruth is non-existence (uncreated, anti-created), truths are there. And also because druj- is everything that is not druj- (or the other way around), since d?a is, druj- is not. Depending on the contexts, a?a/arta- is often interpreted as "working correctly" or "what is right".

In this case, the term (cf. Bartholomae's[17] and Geldner's[18] translation as Gerdner's legal language) has the same scope of interpretation of "law" as in the Anglophone language: truths, rectitude, righteousness, legality, conformance, agreement, order (cosmic order, societal order, ethical order). When ( (the morphostasis of) evenness and "correct working" is a?a/arta- present, when Ahura Mazda determined the course of the sun, lunar and star (Yasna 44. 3), and through a a the plant grows (Yasna 48.6).

Adjectives corresponding to Avestan a?a/arta- are hai?iia - "true". Likewise, the Vedic jargon ?tá-"Truth" is sátya-"true". On the contrary of a?a/arta- and haithya- is druj- "lie" or "wrong". On the contrary, in the Vedas the opposite of ?tá- and sátya- druj- and án?ta- is also "lie" or "wrong".

But while the Indo-Iranian term of truths is witnessed throughout the entire Zinoastrian narrative, ?tá- vanishes into post-Vedic literary memory and is not retained in post-Vedic script. In the Gathas, the Rig Veda's principal subject, "The Wahrheit und die Götter", is not known. 24 ] However, there are similar themes between a?a/arta and ?tá- in Yasht 10, the Avestan anthem to Mithra.

There is Mithra, who is the Hypostase and the Keeper of the Federation, the Guardian of a?a/arta. Vahishta Asha is intimately linked to fire. 20, Angra Mainyu screams that Zoroaster will burn him with Asha Vahishta. 54-55, to speak against the truths and to violate the holiness of the promises, becomes through the use of" flaming waters, of gold colour, with the capacity to recognize sins.

" The analogies of the truths, which burn through fire and detect the truths, are already proven in the very first lyrics, i.e. in the Gathas and in the Yasna Haptanghaiti. At Yasna 43-44, Ahura Mazda gives righteousness through the radiation of his fire and the power of Asa. The fire "recognizes" the sinner " by hand" (Yasna 34.4).

A person who has endured the test by fire (garmo-varah) has achieved bodily and mental power, knowledge, truth as well as charity with composure (Yasna 30.7). You will find further information on the rôle of a?a in the assessment, both in person and in person, under a?a in Aschatology. The fire is also the "aid of truth", "and not only, as in torture, righteousness and at the same one.

"In Yasna 31. 19, "the man who thinks of Asa, [.....] who uses his mouth to talk properly,[does it] with the help of a bright fire". At Yasna 34-44 followers "long passionately for a powerful fire, through Asa. "In Yasna 43-44, Ahura Mazda "shall come from[Mazda] to[Zoroaster] through the splendor of fire and possess the power of (through) Asa and good spirit (=Vohu Manah).

" This fire "possesses power through a?a" is repeating itself in Yasna 43.4. Yasna 43. 9, Zoroaster, who wants to minister to fire, pays special heed to it. At Yasna 37. 1, in a listing of what else all that is a?a is, fire is replaced. Asha Vahishta' comes from the same proto-Indo-European roots as'Airyaman', the deity of the cure, which is intimately associated with Asha Vahishta.

These rescuer characters have the nickname'astvat?r?ta', which also includes the name' arta'. 21 ] These saviors are those who are following Ahura Mazda's teachings "with actions of a?a inspiration" (Yasna 48.12). Airyaman as well as Asha Vahishta (and Atar) are intimately connected with Sraosha "[Voice of] Conscience" and Sr. Asha Vahishta, custodian of Chinavat Bridges, over which the soul must walk.

Following a missing Arabian arcade that was only survived in a later (9th century) text of St. Pahlavic, A?a and Ayaman will come to the end of the period and the last restoration together to fight the az, the Daemon of Avarice (Zatspram 34.38-39). Asha Vahishta's third Yasht, whose nominal address is dedicated to the airship Isya ((!??yo, "Longed for airyaman"), the forth of the four great Gathic worship.

Today it is known as Airyaman in the Zoroastrian culture, just as Ashem Vohu, the second of the four great Gothic prayer, is devoted to A?a. Each of the four prayer (the first is the Ahuna Vairya, the third is the Yenghe Hatam) is about judgment and/or redemption, and all four call to truth.

35, A?a avoids the demand of too great a penalty for spirits sent to hell. Here A?a takes the stance that other lyrics associate with Mithra, which is historically associated with respect. A?a, Eschatologie and Nowruz, see below in the Zoroasterian calender. Though there are a lot of eeschatological similarities between A?a and A?i (especially their connections to Sraosha and Vohu Manah) and sometimes even together they are even referred to (Yasna 51. 10), the two are not etymological related.

" And A?i has no Jewish equivalents. The Zoroasteric cosmogonia and ecology, which - although hinted at in the Gathas - is only described in a systematic way in the Zoroasteric traditions (e.g. Bundahishn 3. 12), is the second ( "a?a made by His thought") of the six original works of Ahura Mazda (cf. Yasna 47. 1).

Though Vohu Manah is often at the top of the Amesha Spenta (and the creation of Ahura Mazda) lists, in which Gathas Asha Vahishta is the most obvious of the six, and also the most frequently associated with wisdom (Mazda). The 238 verse of these anthems contains A?a 157 copies.

"A?a is mated with Vohu Manah in this one. 8, Vohu Manah is standing on the right, while A?a is standing on the right. Among Haomas tribal epits is a?avazah- "furthering a?a" (Yasht 20. 3; Yasna 8. 9, 10.1. 14, 11. 10 and others). Atar" has power through a?a" (a?a-ahojah, Yasna 43.4).

The third and second days of the months are devoted to Asa and Asha Vahishta and have their names in the Koroastrian calender ( (called???????? Ordibehesht in Modern Persian both in the Islamic and Yazdgerdi calendars). On the same date that the devotions of the months and days overlap, a particular divine ceremony is celebrated for both Asa and Jashan of Ardavisht.

Rapithwin, one of the five clocks of the days, under the guardianship of A?a. This means that all prayer that is said between midday and three o'clock will call A?a. Nowruz is the most sacred of all Zoroaster celebrations and is devoted to A?a. Farvadin, devoted and called after Frava?is, the guardians of the deceased, is the first monthly of the year of the Zoroastercalcalendar.

Artabanus (Greek, Latin Artabanus, contemporary Farsi Ardav?n Ardav?n), from *Artab?nu "glory of arta". Artabazus, Artabazos (Greek, Latin Artavasdes), certified as Avestan Ashavazdah, which perhaps means "powerful/enduring through arta" Artabrzana (Greek), from *Artabrzana "arta" Arttaphrenes (Greek), either from Artamainyu "spirit of arta" (phrene): It is also a corrupt state of Artafarnah "[divine] splendour of arta" Artasyras (Greek), of *Artasura, "mighty by arta" Artaxata, Artaxiasata (Greek, Armenian Artashat), which means "joy of arta".

Archaxerxes (Latin, Artoxerxes variation, Greek Artaxesses, Hebrew/Aramaic Artax?ast or Artax?asta), a combination of Artax and Xerxes that is not part of the ancient Persian Artax?ac?, "whose rule is by arta" or "rule of arta". "Artazzostre (Greek), of *Artazaushri "who is for arta" or "who enjoys arta" Artembares (Greek), of *Artempara "who supports arta" or "who supports arta".

" As in Asha Vahishta, ^Avestan venahi?ta is a superior of the adjective vohu-"good", i.e. "vahi?ta""best". Then it could also be a sequel to the principal that it is not only an inherent characteristic of deities, but also for everything that belongs to the area of Ahura Mazda and/or A?a, and thus everything that is not dr?gvant/drvant. f)^A?a seems to be "sacred" in Darmester's 1883 version of Yasht 1 (in SBE 23).

The Encyclopaedia Iranica (A?A). Druj. This is the tale of The Game of Asha, as adopted from several narratives in Firdausi's Shahnameh. Kuiper, Franciscus B. J. (1964), "The Bliss of A?a", Indian-Iranian Journal, 8 (2): 96-129, doi:10.1007/BF00156211.

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