Area MyanmarMyanmar region
Myanmar's controversial areas
While Myanmar emerged from years of authoritarian and isolated life, significant advances have been made on the road to freedom since 2011. However, severe hostilities and fatal confrontations have escalated in many of the fiercely fought areas of the land, especially in Rakhine State, which has resulted in mass expulsions, and in the Kachin and Shan states. A one-year survey entitled "The contaminated areas of Myanmar:
The term'subnational clashes, assistance and development' comes at a crucial time in the midst of long-standing clashes in many parts of Myanmar, as well as in the context of multi-institutional dialogue and the wish of multinational donor and relief organisations to assist the country's peacemaking processes and policy-making. It also highlights the close links between tripartite and domestic policy in Myanmar, where intervention has helped to create unequal momentum for force and increased military opposition, and how global assistance can sometimes affect the prospect of a peaceful outcome if there is no sensitivity to the issue.
Against this backdrop, the report stresses the need to pursue current policy and macroeconomic reform while at the same time establishing a system of governance that is recognised as legitimised by individuals of all racial groupings. By 2016, areas affected by sub-national conflicts, whether acute or chronic, were found in at least 11 of Myanmar's 14 states and territories.
A hundred and eighteen out of 330 cities, which make up almost a fourth of Myanmar's total populace, currently have living or lingering signs of confrontation. The link between Myanmar's humanitarian grassroots developments, its economy and fighting is not easy, and sub-national tensions are not solved through action to enhance the results of these developments. Dispute districts are on general only slightly less advanced than non-conflict districts, especially when Yangon is not.
A number of conflicting communities are above the average, while others have the country's least developed indications. Developing intervention alone can never bring lasting results. Myanmar's disputes are by their very nature politic and are linked to the State. Therefore, policy responses are needed to resolve the problems of sub-nationality. In view of the complexity of the armed conflict in Myanmar, intervention and policy should be stepped up to tackle the root causes of the dispute and to respond better to the imbalances of powers that have triggered the dispute for years, particularly during transition years.
Many disputed areas have experienced an increase in tension s, rivalry, complaints and resources that have maintained the tension. Overseas aid can sometimes be tampered with to meet safety goals, especially when civil servants or heads of ethnically armoured organisations are able to identify projectsites.
To put it briefly, intervention in the field of research is never impartial. Programmes that promote the safety objectives of one side can harm the trust of communities in the country's transitions, while programmes that promote policy reform, such as decentralisation, can contribute to developing dynamism.