Ancient Civilization of Myanmar

Old civilization of Myanmar

Burmese early and old people in Myanmar. They emigrated south from Tibet over a period of several centuries, crossed the province of Yunnan in China and founded settlements on the Irrawaddy River. During the first millennium A.D., the Ayeyarwady Valley was a trade route between China and the Indian subcontinent, through which Theravada Buddhism began to spread in the Pyu-founded cities coming from southern China and the Mon in southern Myanmar today.

Its first identifiable civilization is that of the mono-era in the area of present-day Burma.

Historic period

Describtion/Topic: "Over the past 100 years, the art relationship between the Pyu and the Mon of Burma and the Dv?ravat? Mon of Thailand has been often suggested, but until recently these notions had not been further researched. With regard to current research and, in particular, the relatively steady accessibility of Burma, there is new interest in the civilizations that populated the area, which in the first thousand AD stretched from Upper Burma via Lower Burma to Middle and Southwest Thailand.

Describtion/Topic: How the Bama tribe (Myanmar) penetrated today's Myanmar. According to the writer, the early Bama (Myanmar) were exceptionally courageous soldiers who were skilful riders.... From the northeast they penetrated Upper Burma and then slowly penetrated Middle Burma, from Ywa-ngan (Shan State) to Kyaukse. About 850 A.D. they established themselves in the Kyaukse County, Minbu County and Bagan........Myanmar - Myanmar - Prehistory - Early Story, Tagaung......Keywords:

Writer/Maker:BA SHIN, Col. Writer/Maker:BA SHIN, Col. Description/Topic:These article are chapter from Pyinya Tasaung Sarsaung. You tell the story of Myanmar before Anawrahta (before 1044 A.D.). This article was first included in a publication entitled "Myanmar Before the Time of Anawrahta", which appeared in Bagan Publishing in 1971. Pyu had a mature civilization and their artefacts were magnificent.

While they were civilised, their king was feeble in the defence of his people. Burma - History - Second Pyu Period (500 - 832 A.D.), (5 - 9 Century), 2nd Pyu, 3rd Civilization - Pyu...Keywords: Authors Creator:BA SHIN, Col. Authors Creators:Yi Yi Yi, Dr.

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Burma has a long and complicated past. is that of Mon. Pyu came to Myanmar in the seventh and eighteenth centuries and built urban empires in Binnaka. Burma was part of an interurban road from China to India. By the time of the rule of Anawrahta (1044 - 77), which successfully united all of Myanmar by winning the montown of Thaton in 1057, the empire had grown in relatively isolated conditions.

Burma has once again been split. The survivors of the devastation of Inwa founded a new empire focused on Taungoo in 1531 under the leadership of Tabinshwehti (reigned 1531-50), who reunited much of Myanmar. In 1753, a famous burmese commander by the name of Alaungpaya expelled the Bago troops from North Burma. In 1759, he re-conquered Pegu and South Burma while re-conquering Manipur.

Founded his own city, Rangoon, now known as Yangon. Already in the year 11 the people were living in the area, which today is Myanmar. is that of Mon. Mons mixed Indian and monastic cultures into a hybrid of the two civilisations. In the middle of the 9th centuries they had come to rule all of South Burma.

Pyu came to Myanmar in the seventh and eighteenth centuries and built urban empires in Binnaka. Burma was part of an interurban road from China to India. Halingyi, the Pyu capitol, passed to the Nanchao Empire in the middle of the 9th millennium and ended its rule. By the time of the rule of Anawrahta (1044 - 77), which successfully united all of Myanmar by winning the montown of Thaton in 1057, the empire had grown in relatively isolated conditions.

He was murdered by his own son, but the royal family was soon ended in 1289 when the Mongolians set up a marionette emperor in Myanmar. Burma has once again been split. The Mons have resettled in Bago and under their kings.

The survivors of the devastation of Inwa founded a new empire focused on Taungoo in 1531 under the leadership of Tabinshwehti (reigned 1531-50), who reunited much of Myanmar. Once again Myanmar was an important trade centre. And Tabinshwehti relocated its capitol to Bago because of its economic value.

Myanmar's battles extended it to the limit of its natural resource, but... and both Manipur and Ayutthaya were soon independent again. In the face of the revolt of several towns and further attacks from Portugal, the Tourngoo lords retreated from South Burma and established a second family in Inwa. Reunification of Myanmar in 1613 and decisive defeat against Portugal's efforts to take over Myanmar.

Thalun, his successors, restored the principles of the ancient Bagan realm but overspent too much on religion and neglected the south part of his realm. Soon a new denomination came into being and led Myanmar to its greatest hegemony.

In 1753, a famous leader of Burma, Alaungpaya, expelled the Bago troops from North Burma. In 1759, he re-conquered Bago and South Burma while re-conquering Manipur. Founded his own city, Rangoon. Hsinbyushin, however, successfully fought off four successive chinese incursions between 1766 and 1769.

January 1824, during the rule of King Bagyidaw (reigned 1819-37), a general called Maha Bandula conquered Assam and brought Myanmar into contact with Britain's interests in India. As a reaction to the continuing conquest of Myanmar, the Britons and the Siamese united against Myanmar in 1824.

First Anglo-Burmese War ( 1824-26 ) ended with a defeat of the United Kingdom. Burma betrayed Assam. In the course of the last decade, the Brits began to desire Myanmar's indigenous supplies and wanted to safeguard their way to Singapore. As a result of the conflict, a Myanmar revolt took place in which King Pagin Min (ruled 1846-52) was substituted by his half-brother.

In an attempt to modernize the country's state and economies to defy Britain's assaults, King Mindon founded a new city in Mandalay and fortified it further. Great Britain made all of Burma the Indian provinces in 1886 with the capitol Rangoon. The traditional Myanmar community was dramatically changed by the end of the empire and the division of churches and states.

Although the official end of the conflict was only a few short months away, opposition persisted in the north of Myanmar until 1890, with the Brits eventually relying on the widespread annihilation of towns and the nomination of new officers to put an end to guerrillaism. As Burma's business expanded, all the might and fortune was in the ownership of several UK companies and the Myanmar nation did not harvest the fruits.

Several of these disgruntled college kids formed a new group named thankin ( an Ironic name, since thankin means "master" in the Myanmar tongue, and that was the phrase the college kids had to use when talking to their UK teachers who wanted to upset them). In 1937 the Brits separated Burma from India and gave the settlement a new constitutional treaty demanding a fully electoral convention, but many considered this a trick to prevent them from further reform by India.

Myanmar nationals saw the onset of World War II as an occasion to blackmail Britain for compromises in return for supporting the efforts of the Great Wars, but the Brits would get nothing out of it... an order to detain Aung San... who fled to China. Mr. Aung Sang proclaimed the founding of the Burma Independence Army (BIA) in expectation of Japan's release.

Soon it turned out that the promise of Japan's sovereignty was only a deception and that Ba Maw was only a marionette. At the end of the conflict, the former civil Governor came back, and San was properly detained. But the British withdrew and sent Rance back to re-establish order and belief.

Burma's independent talks began and were successfully concluded in January 1947. It was Thakin Nu who was asked to set up a new government and he led Burma's independent government on 4 January. In Myanmar there were a grand total of 16 kings or dykes. Situated in the central part of Myanmar in the northern part of the village of Kookogwa.

In the south of Myanmar near Beelin, at the base of the mountain Kaylartha. Situated in lower Myanmar. Situated in the Shwebo district of Myanmar. Situated in the west of Myanmar, about 6 nautical miles from Myauk Oo. It' s in Oberburma. Situated in the centre of Myanmar. Situated in the high Myanmar in Sagaing. Situated in the centre of Myanmar.

Situated in the centre of Myanmar. Situated in lower Myanmar in Bago. also ANIRUDDHA (fl. 11. Cent. AD) the first queen of all Myanmar. Pagan, its main town on the Irrawaddy River, became an important pagoda and temple town. While Anawrahta was in power, he combined the Burmese people's north home with the moon domes of the southern hemisphere.

His reign stretched as far up as the Nanchao Empire in the Nothern part, to the Arakan Empire in the Western part, to the Gulf of Martaban in the Southern part (near today's Yangôn[Rangoon]) and to the present day Thailand in the Eastern part. 1057 Anawrahta conquered the Mon town of Thaton, a center of India's civilization.

His downfall caused the other Mon monarchs to subjugate Anawrahta for the first instance; a Myanmar sovereign ruled the Irrawaddy River delta. Contacting the Myanmar civilization rich in Mons. Mons gave Myanmar an art and literature heritage and a system of writings. Myanmar's oldest surviving epigraph, in Mon character, was published in 1058.

I' m a queen. It was Anawrahta who sought to bring his tribe to conversion from the Ari tantric Mahayana tantric Buddha cult, which prevailed in ancient Myanmar. The Theravada Buddhism became the dominating Myanmar religious tradition and the source of inspirations for its civilization and cultur. In 1071, he asked the Myanmar friars for help in reviving the Buddha belief.

Anawrahta was sent a copy of the Buddha's dental remains by the Ceylon Emperor, which was placed in the Shwezigon Pongo on Pagan. It was also known as MOGADO. or CHAO FA RUA (fl. 1300). Known emperor of Hanthawaddy (Hansavadi. or Pegu). who reigned (1287-96) over the monthly race of Lower Myanmar.

A modest Tai-adventureer, Wareru marry a girl of King Ramkhamhaeng of Sukhothai and in 1281 establish himself as Lord of Martaban on the Salween River. The Mon was under Myanmar domination since the time of King Anawrahta of Pagan (1044-77), but after the Mongols dismissed heathens in 1287.

Tarabya, a monarch of Pegu, expelled Myanmar from the Irrawaddy Delta and restored the Mon's sovereignty. Vareru murdered Tarabya and became the monarch of Mon with his capitol Martaban. One of the legends of his rule was the composition of the Dharma-Sastra or Dhammathat, the oldest preserved Myanmaretzbuch.

Narameikhla also named MENG SOAMWUN (fl. early fifteenth century). Founding and first monarch (ruled 1404-34) of the Mrohaung family in Arakan, the marine land western of Lower Burma on the Gulf of Bengal, which had been populated by Myanmar in the tenth centuries.

Narameikhla, the Son of King Rajathu (ruled 1397-1401), was compelled in the first year of his rule to escape to Bengal, where he became the Vasall for King Ahmad Shah of Gaur. 1433 he build a new city in Mrohaung, which stayed the capitol of Arakan until the eighteenth cenury.

Tabinshwehti Tabin (born 1512. toungoo. Myanmar[Myanmar]--d. 1550. Pegu) Pegu B. P.) P. B. King unifying Myanmar (reigned 1531-50). This was the second royal priest of the Tungoo family. His dad. Tabinshwehti began a martial expedition in 1535 against the Pegu Empire in South Burma, which occupied Bassein in the Irrawaddy River Valley.

Pegu. and Takayutpi. the Pegu emperor. Flew to Prome (northwest of today's Yangon[Rangoon]). Most of the rulers of his minions, he dominates Burma as far as Tavoy on the Siamese frontier (Thailand). Tabinshwehti's expeditions in Myanmar's South, although brutal, adopted many Mon traditions, took Mon troops into his armies, and made the ancient town of Pegu his chief town in 1546.

to use Myanmar as a basis for the invasion of Siam. However... his first offensive outside Myanmar... was in Arakan, the realm western of the Irrawaddy delta, where he tried to place a submissive locals lord on the throne; his besiege of the nation's capitol Mrohaung was abandoned after the Siamese invaded Tavoy.... forced him to go home.

1548 he sieged Ayutthaya, the Thai capitol, but had to make a shameful withdrawal to Myanmar. Bayinnaung. The job of repressing a coup in the South. Tabinshwehti was murdered in 1550 by a competing ruler who declared himself to be the sovereign of Pegu. It was Bayinnaung who destroyed the rebellion and continued the work of his brother-in-law to unite Myanmar.

Bayinnaung also named BRAGINOCO or Barinnaung (fl. end of 16. century), König of the Toungoo family ( ruled 1551-81) in Myanmar (Myanmar). It united its land and captured the Shan states and Siam (today Thailand) and made Myanmar the most mighty empire on the continent of Southeast Asia. 1550 an uprising erupted among the Mons of South Burma and Bayinnaung's brother-in-law.

Tabinshwehti. was murdered in 1551 in Pegu by a Mon-Prinzen. When Bayinnaung went to Toungoo, eliminating a heir apparent and declaring himself king, he went southward, conquered the town of Pegu and ordered the execution of the head of the Rebels. Pegu became the capitol of Bayinnaung. Bayinnaung went in 1554 against the Shan chieftains who invaded the old Myanmar capitol Ava.

Myanmar's sovereignty over the Shans was placed, and Bayinnaung was therefore able to strike at its most mighty foe. In the following year he conquered the Thai capitol Ayutthaya and took the Thai kingdom hostage to Myanmar. Myanmar's Emperor put a new minion on the Myanmar crown and sent to Myanmar hundreds of millions of Siamese enslaved.

Myanmar prevailed over Siam for more than 15 years; they were driven out by a freedom struggle under the leadership of a Thai princely. In 1564, when Pegu was burnt during a Mon uprising, he built it up again to an even greater extent and became one of the wealthiest towns in Southeast Asia.

NANDABAYIN (fl. end of the sixteenth century), leader of the Toungoo family of Myanmar, whose rule (1581-99) ended with the fragmentation of the kingdom founded by his dad. Bayin's problems worsened when another group of his father's subordinate tribes rose up in the south of Myanmar and summoned the Siamese to take Martaban and Moulmein on the Salween River.

1595 Nanda Bayin had to withdraw to Pegu and protect the town from an assault of the Siam. They rebelled against Pegu. and Ava. and. after having invited the Arakan Emperor to join the battle, the sieged Pegu. captured Nanda Bayin and cut up the last remains of the Bayinnaung kingdom.

Binnya Dala who died in 1774, last reigning monarch (ruled 1747-57) of Pegu in the south of Myanmar (Myanmar), whose autonomy from the Myanmar northerners was temporarily regained between 1740 and 1757, seven years after their rebellion against Myanmar as Mon kings in the new Myanmar capitol of Pegu.

He was the prime secretary of his forerunner and a more able commander, Binnya Dala, who attacked Myanmar's north many times and went beyond the city of Ava. 1751 he set up a large force to conquer North Burma and conquered Ava in April 1752. Only two years later he carried out the last royal order of the Toungoo family, established in 1486.

The Binnya Dala was finally removed by Alaungpaya, the creator of the Myanmar Alaungpaya family, who took Pegu prisoner in 1757. Alaungpaya. Also called ALAUNG PHRA. Myanmar--d. König (1752-60), who united Myanmar (Myanmar) and established the Alaungpaya. or Konbaung. family, which had authority until the Britons anneked upper (northern) Myanmar on 1 January.

In the Irrawaddy River delta he also took over the sovereign moon-kinggdom of Pegu. Arlaungpaya was a head of a small Myanmar settlement called Moksobomyo (now Shwebo) just north of the Myanmar city of Ava, when in April 1752 Binnya Dala, the Moon Prince of Pegu, took Ava prisoner and put an end to the Toungoo domination of Myanmar.

He claimed the lineage of a Myanmar royal from the fifteenth centuries and founded a new Myanmar capitol in Moksobomyo. 1753 he took Ava back and went on the attack in the south of Myanmar. 1757 he conquered the town of Pegu and took Binnya Dala captive. Elaungpaya establishes efficient controls over the entire area, previously under the reign of the Toungooynasty.

He was anxious to win Britain's backing. 1757 he signed a contract with the B.E.I. which granted him large trading allowances. However, the enterprise... in the aftermath of the French in India... was not willing to engage on a second front in Myanmar. During October 1759 the king's forces slaughtered in Negrais businessmen under suspicion of helping a small rebellion.

Following this operation, UK-Myanmar ties were abandoned. Through the city of Tavoy he commanded an armies south to Tenasserim and then north to Ayutthaya (Ayuthia), the Thai capitol, which he encircled in April 1760. When he was besieged, he was injured and he was killed while his troops were retreating to Myanmar.

Hsinbyushin dying in 1776. Ava. Myanmar. Third Royal Alaungpaya. or Konbaung. 1763-76. Myanmar Royal Myanmar Society. In April 1767, when the Thai capitol Ayutthaya was destroyed, he sent to Myanmar millions of people. "Hanthawaddy Bayinnaung fought like a warrior, but Ava Hsinbyushin like a bandit.

" However, it was very brief; the Thai General Taksin soon drove out the army of Hsinbyushin. In the third invade, when the prince took over the land, he could threat British India. Burma aggression in the Shan States. Laos. and Chiang Mai (then the capitol of the Lan Na kingdom) in 1765-69 lead the Chinese Kaiser to start four anti-Myanmar missions, all of which were conquered by Hsinbyushin.

1773 a rebellion erupted in the south of Myanmar, which oppressed Hsinbyushin. Bodawpaya kings (born 1740/41--d. 1819. Amarapura. Myanmar[Myanmar]). Myanmar kings. Alaungpaya's 6th month monarchs. dynasties. whose rule (1782-1819) began the long struggle with the British. He was the descendant of Alaungpaya (reigned 1752-60), the father of the family.

Bodawpaya in 1784 invade Arakan, the marine empire on the east shore of the Bay of Bengal that took its prince prisoner. in Myanmar. In 1785, when Arakan was appointed Myanmar Provincial in 1785, the Myanmar and British India frontiers were for the first one.

By the time the Emperor sent an armies to smash the uprising, millions of fugitives were fleeing to Britain while Myanmar forces crossed the frontier to pursue the insurgent masters. In 1795 the Brits sent a deputy to Amarapura, the Myanmar capitol, to deal with Bodawpaya.

Pagyidaw (died October 1846) Royal of Myanmar (Myanmar) from 1819 to 1837. 7th Konbaung Empire or Alaungpaya Dysty. He was conquered in the First Anglo-Myanmar War (1824-26). Because of his failure, the Arakan and Tenasserim province were forfeited to the British.

It was Bagyidaw, the grandchild of Bodawpaya, who had barely prevented the British from waging battle across the Bengal-Arakan boundary. Bagyidav was an unfit monarch, but his general. Conquering Assam and Manipur, he turned them into Myanmar affluents. Thus the British India boundary stretched from Arakan on the Bay of Bengal northwards to the base of the Himalayas.

Angry at the Myanmar frontier incursions in search of insurgent troops, a 5 March brawl began. Britain's troops invaded south Myanmar and moved to the city. Is Amarapura (near today's Mandalay). The Bagyidaws administration autographed Yandabo's contract; its conditions include the assignment of Tenasserim and Arakan to the Britons; compensation of £1,000.

thousands (10,000,000 thousand yyat sterling coin ) and waiver of all Myanmar demands in Assam and Manipur which became UK protégé. 1826 the emperor negotiates a trade contract with the ambassador. However, John Crawfurd declined to enter into official Diplomatic contacts unless he could negotiate on an equality footing with the UK Governor and not with the East India Company in Calcutta.

Bagyidav could not convince the British to return Tenasserim to Myanmar, but a 1830 dispatch ed to Calcutta successfully affirmed Myanmar's claims to the Kale-Kabaw valley that had been invaded by the Manipuris. Maha Bandoola. also spelt MAHABANDULA (b. 1780? --d. April 1, 1825. Danubyu. Myanmar[Myanmar]).

The Myanmar general who was fighting the British in the First Anglo-Myanmar War (1824-26). Maha Bandula was serving in the Myanmar Empire that occupied Manipur in 1819, and two years later he ordered a second Myanmar troop to conquer Assam. Then King Bagyidaw nominated him Gouverneur of Assam and Secretary of State at the Courts of Ava.

In March, when the Brits proclaimed a war, he immediately marched into Bengal, occupied Ratnapallang and defeated a troop of Britain at Ramu. Chittagong and Dacca in a flash and, with the help of a second Myanmar military that marched from Assam, drive the Britons out of Bengal.

But when the British arrived in Yangon (Rangoon) in May. Following the deployment of a large military base in the north of Myanmar. But in December he tried - without success - to surround the British, who were rooted in the Yangon area. He withdrew when his HQ passed to the British to get ready to defend Danubyu.

The British attacks on Danubyu in March 1825 were courageous in defending Bandula. And the British moved forward to Prome, which means Myanmar's failure. Tharrawaddy ( died October 1846), 8th royal emperor (reigned 1837-46) of Alaungpaya. or Konbaung. Myanmar family ( Myanmar) who rejected the Treaty of Yandabo and almost waged battle with the British.

In 1837 Tharrawaddy dismissed his sister Bagyidaw (reigned 1819-37), who was obligated to signing the degrading contract that left the Arakan and Tenasserim province to the Britons. Mr Tharrawaddy invalidated the contract and declined to bargain with Indian officials, and demanded the right to bargain directly with the UK sovereign.

Born in Amarapura, the Myanmar capitol, the Briton had to depart in June 1837, and Tharrawaddy declined to take on his replacement in 1838 because he was only a deputy of the General Governor of India. 1840 the Brits interrupted the residence. And diplomatic ties between Myanmar and the Brits were interrupted for more than a decade. 6.

In 1841 Tharrawaddy almost led Myanmar into the Revived Wars when he went to Yangôn (Rangoon) to go on pilgrimage to the Shwe Dagon Pongo and bring a large army escort with him. Britons saw this as an act of aggression and renounced to start animosities only because of their involvement in Afghanistan.

Mindon King (born 1814. Amarapura. Myanmar[Myanmar]--d. October 1, 1878. Mandalay). Mandalay King of Myanmar from 1853 to 1878. Once he became queen. He lamented for freedom and began to negotiate with the British about the Pegu state ( in the south of Myanmar) that the British had taken during the Great Patriotic War. As a result, Mindon was able to take over the Pegu state.

Trustfallen at his efforts to convince them to come back to Pegu, the Emperor had to face a greatly scaled -down reign, cutting off from the ocean and robbing some of the wealthiest tea woods and paddy fields. In 1867, in order to prevent further difficulties, he entered into a trade agreement making large financial allowances to the Brits in the vacant parts of Myanmar.

Paris. and Rome to ensure the internationally recognized independence of Myanmar and to demand the re-establishment of its land. Mindon's rule is sometimes regarded as a gold era of Myanmar civilization and religion. But in 1857 he rebuilt a new city. Mandalay. With buildings and convents that are true examples of Myanmar's ancient architectural tradition.

In 1871, he convened the Fifth Buddhist Council there to review and cleanse the Pali writings. Standardizing the weight and dimensions of the land, he constructed streets and a cable system and was the first Myanmar emperor to publish coins.

Mindon's rule is positive compared to that of Mongkut of Siam (Thailand), although Siam enjoys the preferential status of a cushion state between UK and France property, while the survival of an sovereign Myanmar empire has been an obstacle to Britain's interests. Thiebaw ( ruled 1878-85), who was to be the last emperor of Myanmar.

His Majesty Thibaw also spell "THEEBAW" (born 1858. Mandalay. Myanmar--d. Dec. 19. 1916. Ratnagiri Fort. India) Last Myanmar Emperor whose brief rule (1878-85) ended with the British occupying Upper Myanmar. Thiebaw was a younger child of Mindon Kings (ruled 1853-78) and was educated (1875-77) in a buddhistic cloister.

He was strongly affected by his woman as a queen. and his ascension to the Throne were inflicted by much force and a lot of war. Trying to demand the help of the French against the British who had appropriated Lower Myanmar during his father's rule.

Rumors were circulating that the Thibaw administration had agreed to the France economy trade pledges in return for a policy coalition, and Britain civil servants in Rangoon. and London began to demand the immediate annexation of Upper Myanmar. The case of the Bombay-Myanmar Trading Corporation in the UK, which took tea from the Ningyan forests in Obermyanmar, provided an opportunity for action.

In 1885 the Brits entered Upper Burma. Two week later they conquered Mandalay. The Thibaw was sold and Upper Burma was integrated into the Myanmar region. San Saya also spelt HSAYA, originally YA GYAW (born 24 October 1876, East Thayet-kan, Shwebo County, Myanmar[Myanmar]--e. 16 November 1931, Tharrawaddy), commander of the 1930-32 anti-British revolt in Myanmar (Myanmar).

The Saya San comes from Shwebo, a center of monarchic nationalism in northern Myanmar, the place of birth of the Konbaung (or Alaungpaya) tribe that ruled Myanmar from 1752 to Britain's annexation in 1886. Prior to the revolt he was a Buddhist friar, doctor and astrologer in Siam (Thailand) and Myanmar.

The Saya San organised the dissatisfaction of the peasants and declared himself a heir to the Throne who, like Alaungpaya, would reunite the nation and drive out the intruder. After organizing his adherents in the "Galon Army" (Galon, or Garuda, is a magnificent Hindu mythological bird), he was declared "King" on October 28, 1930 in Insein, near Rangoon (Yangon).

Like the boxers of China, the Galonian armies' insurgents wore followers and tats to make themselves indestructible to Britain's orbs. The Saya San insurgents, who were only equipped with weapons such as weapons such as swords of arms and javelins, were not suitable for English forces with automatic rifles. Farmers in the south of Myanmar had been expropriated by lenders from India, were subject to high taxation and remained destitute when prices fell in an economical crisis.

The broad backing for Saya San revealed the fragile and infamous location of Britain's dominance in Myanmar. of Aung San (born 13 February 1915, Natmauk, Myanmar[now Myanmar]--d. 19 July 1947, Rangoon[now Yangôn]), Myanmar's Nazi ruler and murdered protagonist, who was a major contributor to Myanmar's gaining independance from Britain. Aung San was active anti-British before World War II; during World War II he then formed alliances with the Japanese, but joined the Allies before spearheading Myanmar's quest for autonomous government.

Aung San was borne from a home in the opposition following Britain's 1886 annexation and was appointed clerk to the Student Council of Rangoon University, where she headed the student strikes with U Nu in February 1936. When Myanmar separated from India in 1937 and graduated in 1938, he worked for the We-Burmans Association (Dobama Asi-ayone) and became its general secretary in 1939.

Aung San was approached by the Japanese in China in search of overseas assistance for Myanmar's 1940 independency. Then they helped him set up a Myanmar army to help them invade Myanmar in 1942. It was called the "Myanmar Separendence Army", expanded with the Japanese advancement and tend ingly took over the management of the area.

Aung San, as secretary of defence in the Ba Maw marionette regime (1943-45), became sceptical of the promise of Myanmar's sovereignty from Japan, even if an unlikely Japanese-made win, and was dissatisfied with her handling of the Myanmar armed force. Thus in March 1945 Major General Aung San hired his Myanmar National Army for the Allied cause.

Following Japan's capitulation in August 1945, the British attempted to admit his armed services to the formal armies, but he retained important members and founded the people's volunteer organisation. It was supposedly a veterans' organization interested in welfare services, but in reality it was a privately owned military force to replace its Myanmar National Military and be used as the main arm in the fight for freedom.

After Aung San had participated in 1944 in the foundation of the Antifascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL), an oppressed party of activists, she used this common front to become vice-chairman of the executive council of Myanmar at the end of 1946. Indeed, he was premier secretary, but stayed under the UK governor's axe. In London, after consultation with UK Premier Clement Attlee, he signed an accord (January 27, 1947) which provides for Myanmar's sovereignty within a year.

Although he had been condemned by Communists as a "tool of UK imperialism," he backed a Myanmar independent resolution outside the UK Commonwealth.

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