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The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Greece
Sumeria was the most southern part of ancient Mesopotamia (today's Iraq and Kuwait), which is generally regarded as the birthplace of man. Sumerians named themselves "the Schwarzkopf people" and their country, in wedge writing, was just "the land" or "the country of the Schwarzkopf people", and in the Bible book Genesis Sumer is known as Shinar.
The Sumerians' list of kings says that when the deities first gave people the necessary offerings to cultivate our societies, they did so by founding the city of Eridu in the Sumer area. Whereas the city of Uruk in Sumeria is considered the oldest city in the worid, the ancient Mesopotamians thought it was Eridu and that order and civilisation began here.
Sumer was probably first settled around 4500 BC. Not Sumerians, but a tribe of little-known origins, described by archeologists as the Ubaide tribe - from the dug-up hill of al-Ubaid, where the artefacts that first witnessed their presence were discovered - or from the Proto-Euphrates, who described them as former residents of the area of the Euphrates River. of order over mayhem.
Anyone who was, they had already before 5000 B.C. changed from a hunter-gatherer association to an agricultural one. Excavation of al-Ubaid and other places in the south of Iraq has exposed Ubaid stones such as heels, knifes and adze and key artefacts, including crescents, brick, decorated ceramics and figures.
They were the first civilisation operatives in the area. It is not known when the Sumerians arrived in the area. The Sumerians, 43," according to the scientist Samuel Noah Kramer, "is the first sovereign of Sumer whose actions are documented, albeit in the shortest form, a sovereign named Etana of Kish, who perhaps ascended the empire as early as the third millenium B.C." (The Sumerians, 43).
This is a list of Sumeria's royalty, a wedge writing documents by a writer from the city of Lagash, sometime around 2100 BC, listing all the monarchs of the area and their achievements to show the continuance of order in civilisation.
Since Mesopotamians in general and Sumerians in particular thought that civilisation was the outcome of the victory of the gods over the mess, it is assumed that the royal list was established to legitimise the rule of a sovereign called Utu-Hegal of Uruk (r. c. 2100 BC) by showing him as the youngest in a long line of regional masters.
Étana is known from the legend of the man who ascended to heaven on the back of an hawk and, like other monarchs named in the register (including Dumuzi and Gilgamesh), was known for his supernatural achievements and heroes. Utu-Hegal, it is assumed, tried to connect with such former heroes' king by creating the king's register.
The Mesopotamians thought that the deities had put everything in flux and that humans were made to work with the deities to keep order and stop mayhem. So early historians in the area focused more on the connections between the sovereigns and their deity. Write the story of man's achievements seems to have been a minor issue for these authors and as a consequence, the early story of Sumer was derived from the archeological and zoological records more than a literary heritage and much information is still not available to contemporary scientists.
Wherever Sumeria's civilisation was first created in the area, by 3600 BCE they had invent the bike, typing, sailing ship, rural practices such as watering and the city' approach (though China and India also laid claims to'the first cities' in the world). It' s generally acknowledged that the first towns in the word originated in Sumer and were among the most important ones Eridu, Uruk, Ur, Larsa, Isin, Adab, Kullah, Lagash, Nippur and Kish.
Uruk is considered the first real city in the whole wide globe. Kramer again found out that these mentions are not from Sumeria, but come from the Ubaiders and so, at least as a village, were established much sooner than around 5000 BC. Others towns in Sumer were Sippar, Shuruppak, Bad-tibira, Girsu, Umma, Urukag, Nina and Kissura.
They were all of different sizes and ranges, with Uruk being the biggest and most mighty in its heyday. The founding of the towns of Sumer marked the beginning of their story from about 5000 BC to 1750 BC, when "the Sumerians stopped existing as a people" (Kramer), after Sumer was occupied by the Elamites and Amorites.
The Uruk era (4100-2900 B.C.) came after the Ubaid era (ca. 5000-4100 B.C.), in which towns emerged in the countryside and the city of Uruk gained in importance. Although the time is called after the'first city' of Uruk, Eridu was regarded by the Sumerians themselves as the first city, as already mentioned.
International commerce was solidly entrenched at that period and the typeface developed from pictographs to wedge-print. Commerce is believed to have been the primary driver in the evolution of the letter, as there now had to be some means for precise, wide-ranging communications between the traders of Sumer and their overseas broker.
At the same period, the kingdom was established and the city-states of Sumer were governed by a sole ruler supported by a board of trustees (which comprised both men and women). Only after the reign of the eight monarchs did the Sumerians begin to appear on the king's list.
From 2900-2334 BC, the early dynastic period saw a gradual change from a priestly kingship (known as Ensi) to a more contemporary notion of the'king' known as Lugal ('great man'). During this period, the city-states of Sumer struggled for power over farmland and aquatic privileges until the first Lagash dynasty rose in 2500 BC.
During the reign of Eannutum, Lagash became the center of a small kingdom that encompassed much of Sumer and parts of neighbouring Elam. The kingdom still existed under Lugal-Zage when a young man, who later claims to have been the king's keeper, conquered the royal family. Accadia governed the most part of Mesopotamia, among them Sumer, until a nation known as the Gutians, marched in from the northern part (the territory of present-day Iran) and devastated the big city.
Gutianism ( "Gutian period", around 2218-2047 BC) is regarded as a murky era in Sumeric evolution (and mesopotamic evolution as a whole) and the Gutians were generally insulted by Summerian authors in later stories, most of whom regard it as a penalty sent by the deities. Last menstruation in Sumeric is known as the Ur III menstruation (2047-1750 BC), thus called after the third dynasty of the city of Ur.
It is also known as the Sumerian Renaissance, as the considerable progress in civilisation - which touched practically every facet of civilised man's lives - was made. Fictional before or during the Ur III era, the instruments, ideas and technology innovation that existed during the Third Dynasty of Ur consolidated the Sumerian's place in the story as the creator of civilisation as we know it.
Samuel Noah Kramer's Historical Begins at Sumer list 39 "firsts" in the area' s story, including the first school, the first saying and saying, the first Messiah, the first Noah and flood tales, the first charley, the first fish tank, the first trial, the first story of a dead and risen deity, the first burial songs, first Bible analogies and first ethical notions.
Sumerians also made up the story of how their sexual system of count (a system of 60 numbers ) made up the 60-second minutes and the 60-minute clock. There were also divisions of nights and dawns into cycles of 12 hrs, a'working day' limitation with a start and finish period, and the creation of the so-called'days off' for public holiday.
He further observes that the contemporary praxis of chart control originated in ancient Sumer and that the Astrology symbols under which one was borne were first noticed and mentioned by ancient Mesopotamia. Primordial Nammu composed the first Sumerian law book, which became the model for the much later and more well-known Hammurabi of Babylon law book.
Sumer, under the uniting power of the Third Dynasty of Ur, became a patrimonial state ("following the model of the fatherly patriarchate governed by a patriarch", as Kriwaczek noted), in which the sovereign was the fatherly figurine that led his sons on the right road to wellbeing.
Shulgi walked 100 kilometers (160.9 kilometers) between the ecclesiastical center of Nippur and the capitol Ur and back again - in one single days - to celebrate at the feasts in both city.
The creation of reverence and wonder in her subject matter seems to have been pivotal to the reign of the Magi of Ur at that age. Shulgi's sons, grandchildren and great-grandchildren restored and reinforced the walls to keep those they named "the barbarians" away from Sumer, but the barriers turned out to be inconclusive.
Neighbouring Elam's troops broke through the walls and walked toward Ur, plundered it and carried away the emperor around 1750 BC. After the Ur III period and the downfall of Ur, many Sumerians emigrated to the south. Subtitles in Arabic were no longer used as a lingua franca (although they were still written), as they were largely superseded by Semitic Akkadian, and Subterranean civilization was ended.
Nevertheless, something as fundamental as the 24-hour days was discovered in Sumer.