Ancient City in MyanmarAntique city in Myanmar
; MLCTS: pu. gam, IPA:[b??à?]; formerly Pagan) is an ancient city in the Mandalay region of Myanmar. Nowadays it is a ruin, but still an incredible place to visit. In the jungle lies Angkor, while Bagan is drier and on a vast plain. Mandalay is surrounded by the ancient cities of Amarapura, Sagaing, Innwa and Mingun, the first three capitals of an ancient Burmese kingdom.
Ancient Pyu Towns
The Pyu Ancient Centers comprises the remnants of three masonry, brickwork and watered towns of Halin, Beikthano and Sri Ksetra, situated in huge irrigation areas in the arid area of the Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) river basins. It reflects the Pyu kingdoms that blossomed between 200 BC and 900 AD for over 1,000 years. Some of the three towns are archeological excavations.
The ruins are archaeological palaces, tombs and production facilities as well as Buddhist brickwork stupa, partially erected stone ramparts and facilities for managing waters, which supported organised intense agricultur. The ruins of the three cities Halin, Beikthano and Sri Ksetra with their city ramparts and moats bear witness to the history of the Great Pyu kingdoms, which lasted for more than 1000 years, between 200 BC and the end of the 19th century.
These three cities are partially exposed archaeological places. There are citadel palaces, tombs and former manufacturing facilities as well as monumental Buddhist brick stupa, partly standing walls and water management elements, which made an intense farming possible.
This site contains the remains of brick buildings, walls and trenches of the three ancient cities of Halin, Beikthano and Sri Ksetra, located on the vast irrigated land that stretches across the dry Irawadi river basin. The ancient cities of Pyu consist of the remains of the cities of Halin, Beikthano and Sri Ksetra.
Pyu Ancient Cities is the first witness to the emergence of Buddhism in Southeast Asia almost two thousand years ago and the associated economical, socio-political and cultur changes that marked the ascent of the first, biggest and longest inhabited settlement in the area up to the ninth age.
The city of the expanded city size caused the urbanisation of most of Southeast Asia's continent. Those early buddhistic city-states had an important part to play in transferring the literature, architecture and rites of Pali-based Buddhism to other communities in the subregion where they are still used.
Halin, Beikthano and Sri Ksetra together as serial property bear common witness to the various facets of the evolution of this new housing scheme for the South East Asia area. This includes the period from the 1st millennium B.C. to the ninth millennium A.D., buddhistic convent societies, pronounced funeral practices, skillful aquatic managment and long distance crafts.
In all three places of the ancient city of Pyu, the irrigation landscapes of the Pyu period still affect the countryside living conditions of the contemporary populace, while the Buddhist pilgrimages from the entire area still worship the sacred relics. Through the interactions between Indian Pyu communities and Indian civilizations from the 2. cent. BC, Buddhism reached its first fixed place in Southeast Asia among the Pyu towns, where it was accepted by all social strata from the dominant elites to the peasant workers.
The Pyu Ancient Cities, dominated by impressive stupa and other refined shapes of brickwork formalities, are the early testimonies to the creation of these pioneering architectonic shapes in the area, some of which have no known prototype. In Southeast Asia, the evolution of the Pyu-Buddhist civilization had far-reaching and lasting effects and gave impulses for the later state-building after the fifthcentury after Buddhism doctrine and religious practices were transferred to other parts of the Southeast Asian continent.
Pyu Ancient Cities was the birthplace of the first Buddhist city civilisation in Southeast Asia. It was accompanied by the reorganisation of agriculture on the basis of professional cultivation of seasonal scarcity of aquatic resource and specialised manufacture of products from terra cotta, steel, ore, golden, sterling and semi-precious stone, both for worship and traffick.
Pyu invented and implemented one-of-a-kind funeral practice in which litter bins were used to keep burnt objects in community funeral facilities. Trade nets connected the ancient towns of Pyu with trade centers in Southeast Asia, China and India. It was through this net that buddhistic evangelists brought their pali-based teachings to other areas of Southeast Asia. Technology innovation in resources and farming, and in the manufacture of bricks and steel in the Pyu Ancient Centers have provided the basis for significant progress in town and country development and structural engineering.
This innovation led to the emergence of the three oldest, biggest and most durable Buddhist city dwellings in all of Southeast Asia. Pyu towns' urbane telephology has created a new model of the expanded municipal size, characterised by solid city ramparts encircled by ditches; a web of streets and channels connecting inner-walled areas of the city with vast areas of extraterrestrial evolution containing bourgeois comforts, monuments of religion delimited by lofty stupa and holy creeks.
In or near the center of every ancient city was an administration complex that housed the Palast, which marked the cosmos center of the Pyu world. Pyu Ancient Cities are archeologically sound, as can be seen in the preserved memorials, the in-situ structure remnants, the unspoilt unexplored ruins and the still working agricultural land.
Each city' s municipal base, delimited by the well-preserved city wall, will remain clearly readable two thousand years after its erection. Borders contain those core characteristics of exceptional value, which include a prestigious selection of the vast irrigation landscapes that helped the city. Comprehensiveness and dependability of the site's date-based archeological sequence, the carbon-radio data from unbroken 190 BC architecture, provides scholarly evidence for the whole one thousand year settlement of the towns and reinforce the paleographic data provided by pyu writings on the artefacts dug up at the site.
Also, the landscaping of the three towns will remain largely untouched, the artificial structure such as channels and reservoirs will be used for ongoing farming work. Pyu Ancient Cities' authencity lies in the architectonic shape and layout of unchanged and still existing monuments and districts; in a continual history of the use and functioning of places of worship of Buddhism; in the maintenance of farming and productive farming system lineage and technologies, whose roots are evident in the historical countryside and are still practised in the area; and in the area; as well as in the area; in the development of the Pyu Ancient Centers;
where the towns were originally located, confirmed by archeological research and largely unaltered since the end of the historical urbanised village 1000 years ago; the material and fabric of the artifacts found in the local artifacts procured and produced on site; and the atmosphere and sense of the three ancient towns that continue to inspired worship and pilgrimages in the Myanmar story and to this date.
Decisive steps for the judicial defence and administration of the ancient towns of Pyu have been institutionalised at the level of the federal administration, the regions, the districts and the municipalities. DANM (Department of Archaeology and National Museum) of the Ministry of Culture has the main responsibilities for all facets of the conservation and administration of the three ancient towns of Pyu.
Initially, the site was designated as a conservation area under the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act (1904) of British India. Its protection has been further developed and expanded by Myanmar's domestic law, which includes the 1957 Antiquities Act (amended in 1962), the 1998 Heritage Protection and Conservation Act (amended in 2009) and the rules and regulations of the 2011 Heritage Region Act.
There is the Central Committee for Myanmar's World Heritage and the Myanmar World Heritage. A Pyu Ancient Cities Coordinating Committee (PYUCOM) was set up to coordinate the preservation and cultivation of the three ancient districts and to incorporate the preservation of the site into municipal land resources programming.
PYUCOM is a core component of the real estate plan and contributes to the recognition and integration of locally established legacy frameworks into day-to-day operations. PYUCOM calls together at each of the locations community advisory groups to address the needs of different stakeholders: provincial governments, community leaders, community leaders and the Mönchsorganisation.
PYUCOM adopted a Property Managment Plan which was adopted by the Ministry of Culture on January 18, 2013. Temporary activity schedules form the basis for the realization of the regulations of the Property Managment Plan. In a number of areas, the Property Managment Plan is reinforced by the ongoing elaboration of support programmes such as awareness-raising, visit managerial, nature protection capacities, site design, municipal communal planning and city use and planning.
Archeological relics that have been dug up and uncovered, in particular gravesites and hydrologic elements of the countryside, need to be preserved continuously and in some cases more intensively.