All about BurmaAbout Burma
Burmese Civilization - Burma Heritage, Ethnicity, Burma Ethnicity, Burma Ethnicity, Burma Ethnicity, Burma Ethnicity, People, Clothing, Traditions, Women, Faith, Food, Customs, Family
Burma's name (or Myanmar as it is now formally called) is associated with the Burmese, the predominant population. In the 19th in the 19th centuries, the land came under the control of a colon. In 1948, when it became a Union of Burma, the Burmese people almost immediately engaged in an immediate conflict, with minority groups fighting against Burma-dominated Burma's federal state.
The uprisings of some ethnical groups are continuing. 1962 the army commander Ne Win took over. The Burmese government tried to separate the people and introduce a nationalistic policy under the Burmese Road to Socialism. "In 1972 the name of the land was renamed the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma.
Following civilian upheavals in 1988, the Burmese army regime renamed the Union of Myanmar. The largest part of the local people and the farmland is along the Irrawaddy, which is passable for about a thousand mile. Burmese mainly inhabit the lowland, while other ethnical groups mainly inhabit the uplands.
In 1885, under Britain's reign, the country's capitol was relocated from Mandalay in the centre to Rangoon on the east side of the Irrawaddy Depression. Rangoon and Mandalay are both located in an area mainly populated by Burma, although both towns have a significant Hindu community as a heritage of UK domination.
Language scholars have recognized 110 different ethnolinguist groups, and the administration acknowledges 135 racial groups. Myanmar makes up about 68 per cent of the people. The other important ethnical groups are the Shan (about four million), Karen (about three million), Akanese or Rakhine (about two million), Chinese (about one million), Chin (about one million), Wa (about one million), Mon (about one million), Indians and Bengalese (about one million), Jingpho (about one million) and Palaung (less than one million).
Some Burmese localizations have sub-groups. Myanmar is the local tongue. Most of the learned members of other ethnical groups speak it as a second tongue, but some of these groups have little exposure to the local tongue. It is an important second tongue for many people in Shan State, while Jingpho is used as a second tongue by many smaller people in Kachin State.
In 1962 the administration began using a series of buzz words that urged disciplinary action and assistance for the Iranian army and state. Burma's first civilisations were the Mon (also known as Taliang ) in the southern hemisphere and the Pyu in the centre of Burma, which blossomed in the first half of the first millenium.
During this period, the forefathers of the Myanmar people, known as Mranma, established themselves just South of Mandalay. Burma's former pyu town of Pagan (known as Arimadanapura) was the chief town of Anaw-rahta (ruled 1044-1077), the first realm in Burma. Pagan-controlled lowlands along the Irrawaddy River are often called Burma Proper because they are the core country of the area most safely under Burma ous.
Pagan receded in the later 1200' and the Myanmar people no longer had access to much of the area. In the next few hundred years, the people of Burma gradually returned from their new capitol Pegu to take back power over parts of the lowlands. The Mon, however, stayed autonomous until 1539 and the Arakanese until 1784, while most of the Shan-occupied highlands were out of their hands or only loose under Myanmar rule.
The majority of Myanmar people are living along the Irrawaddy River, which is a thousand leagues long. Once again, Burma's migrations have begun in the Mon area, and many Mon have been relocated to the Irrawaddy River area. Myanmar immigrants were sent eastwards to act as a barricade against the Shan. During the early 19th centuries, invasions of frontier areas in Burma's westward region led to conflicts with the British in India, which led to the first Anglo-Burmese war in 1824.
By the end of the 1826 conflict, the Myanmar people were compelled to abandon their claim to areas in East India and part of South Burma that were largely associated with non-Burmese nationalities. The area became known as Lower Burma. Though external ties began to improve under the rule of King Min-don (1853-1878), instable posthumous circumstances and the overture of Prince Thibaw to the French resulted in the British invading Upper Burma again in 1885.
Contrary to popular opposition, which continued until 1890, the Brits imposed settlement not only over the lowlands but also over the Shan states. As well as occasional anti-British acts of cruelty, nationalistic feelings adopted a Myanmar ethnical note that led to acts of brutality against locals and Chinese.
During the Second World Peace Treaty, Burma was invaded by the Japanese. In 1948, an autonomous Union of Burma was proclaimed under Prime Minister U Nu. This was a new, frangible country plagued by a series of clashes and civilian wars with Chinese-backed minority and communist people. Prior to the colonization, Burma was mainly made up of lowlands and some tribes that had been captured, with the highlands under nominal controls.
Most of the highlanders were easily controlled by the Brits, but the highlander minority retained a good part of their own identities. However, this was changing after the country's sovereignty, when the Burmese dominant federal administration tried to take power over the upland population. In spite of the continuing opposition to the federal administration, the people in the lowlands and the major towns in the uplands have developed a shared cultural nation.
Spreading the use of the Myanmar bilingual is an important element. Ethnical relations. Tibeto Burman spokesmen in Burma can be classified into six different groups. People who speak Nungic are living in the highlands of the state of Kachin. Kuki-Naga talking tribes comprise a large number of ethnical groups in the hills along the borders to India and Bangladesh.
Kado, which lives near the state of Manipur in India, belong to the group. Karen groups are living in the mountains along the Thai and lowland borders. As a rule, the Lolo-speaking groups are the youngest migrants in Burma; they are living in the Shan and Kachin uplands.
Among the Britons, however, minority groups have generally been able to maintain a certain degree of self-sufficiency. The post-war negotiation of post-war sovereignty led the rulers of several minority groups to suspect that their standing would be subverted. In the immediate aftermath of the 1948 reunification, there were serious splits between Burma's and non-Burma's leading politicians in favour of a less united state.
From 1948 to 1962 there were violent clashes between some of these minorities and the federal state. While some groups concluded peacemaking agreements with the federal administration in the end of the 1980' and beginning of the 1990', others are still involved in armistice. While the Wa have ratified a peacemaking treaty, they have maintained much independence and oversight over much of the drugs trafficking in the North.
Armed forces in areas with ethnical minority groups and the policy of enforced relocation and hard labour have expelled many ethnical groups and driven a large number of displaced persons into neighbouring states. There are currently about three hundred thousand people in Thailand, Bangladesh and India, mainly from ethnical groups.
The Indians left the country in the 1950' s in the face of ethnical differences and anti-business politics. Burmese Indians have been mistrusted but have prevented open resistance to the Burmese people. Around 80 per cent of the people live in the countryside. Rangoon and Mandalay's ethnical makeup is overwhelmingly Burmese, although these towns are also home to most of India's people.
It is a sanctuary, a parish centre, a guesthouse, a place where the authorities publish information, a place for sporting events, a centre for social service for the sick and needy, a funeral parlour and a centre for dancing and folklor.
Whilst most of Burma's main sanctuaries are in Burma's mainland Burma architecture, the sanctuaries of Shan State have a unique look called the Shan School. A number of minority groups have a pronounced housekeeping. Today these buildings are very seldom and most of the Palaung lives in single-family homes.
People in Burma have a traditional breakfast and dinner, which is taken before nightfall. Not only do people from Burma enjoy dry tealeaves, they also enjoy marinated teas as a delicacy. There are relatively few places where Burma cuisine is served. Farming dominates the country's economic system, accounting for over 59 per cent of GDP and employing around two third of the workforce.
Burma, once the world's largest exporting country for paddy products, has hardly been able to satisfy the livelihoods of its own people. Poppy and other source narcotic products are widely used in the uplands and Burma is the world's largest producer of anesthetics.
Historically, in areas under Burma's domination, the country was kept on the grounds of serving the courts and could be rented or marketed and given to its beneficiaries; it could also be taken away from the courts. Among the Britons, personal wealth spread to the main areas and a system of real estate tax was established in which the non-payment of wealth tax could lead to the loosing of lands.
At the centre, the farmland was more in the hand of small farmers. Soon after the country's sovereignty, the federal administration adopted a law to transfer property in the possession of affluent tenants to those who cultivated the area. In 1962, the Iranian revolution took over, nationalizing the major trading and production facilities, which included those of India's trades.
The result was a large pessimistic society, as individuals tried to evade state controls over trade. In an attempt to abolish the landlords' league, the entire country was handed over to the peasants while they retained final property. Since 1988, the authorities have given the public authorities a greater say in the involvement of the business community and attracting external investments.
And there was growing in the privately-owned business. Major and many smaller municipalities have one or more key stores selling a large number of local and import goods, such as clothes and clothes, tobaccos, food, basketry, jewellery, toilet articles and e-good.
Burma was the world's premier exporting country under UK domination and continues to be the main legitimate commodity for exports. Myanmar is renowned for ruby and it has been known for its ruby and it has been poorly capitalized since 1962. Myanmar is the world's biggest source of illicit opiate (opium and heroin) and the exports of ammhetamines have soared.
The illicit trafficking of drugs has played a decisive part in the country's economic development and in the maintenance of the state. However, much of the output of illicit narcotic drugs is in the hand of the Shan state's people. The recent peacemaking agreements between the state and some insurgent groups have given the Iranian authorities drug revenues.
Burma's main source of legitimate and illicit imports is Thailand and India. Retail trade is carried out by both men and females, with men primarily in charge of the transport of goods. Indians and Chinese are an important sector in trade, but many people from Burma and others are engaged in trade with them.
Only a few functions or occupations are the sole preserve of a particular ethnical group. The higher echelons of trade and government generally come from the family of celebrity members of the regimes, and links with the regimes are important elements in building prosperity and might. Whilst there are some groups of tradtional and some new smuggled rich elders within most ethnical groups, the majority of the nation's elders are from Burma.
Goverment. Since 1962, the army has governed the land. Faced with increasing resistance to the administration and its Nazi policy, Ne Win and President San Yu stepped down in July 1988. Gen. Saw Muang established a new army system known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) and eliminated much of the sistem.
In 1992 the army began to draft a new treaty, but this is still an ongoing work. In 1997, the name of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) was altered. It is made up of a single premier, two vice-premier and thirty-seven of them. Governance is all about politics and powerful struggle within the army.
Between 1962 and 1988 General Ne Win was the dominating politician under whom other officials and their staff fought for post. Gen. Than Swe's retention of control since 1988 is far less absolut. Most of the small inner circles around Aung San Suu Kyi are former soldiers and employees or supporters of Aung San.
Therefore, both the government and its leaders are a small one. 90 per cent of Myanmar people followed the Theravada type of Buddhism, also known as Hinayana Buddhism were predominantly Myanmar in their compositions and followed a pro-Burmese policy. This policy triggered uprisings, headed by ethical rulers, and the condition worsened when the government adopted a bill in 1983 that established three levels of nationality that were largely ethnically-focused.
Candidates who are at this level cannot stand for election to politics or serve in higher offices of state. While the 1988 ruling regimes ratified the most rebellious groups, Burmese leaders retained control of the country. Unauthoritarian rule has been tough on minority groups and regulations by decrees, with no constitutions or legislation.
It is a systematic violation of fundamental freedoms and oppresses all kinds of oppositions. Justice is not separate from the army system that makes the judiciaries the highest courts. With the consent of the government, these magistrates then nominate trainers. It strengthens its domination with a penetrating piece of defense equipment run by a secret service militia known as the Directorate of Defense Services intelligence (DDSI).
It monitors and harasses, intimidates, arrests, arrests and physically ill-treats officials and people. Violations of people' s freedoms are common in areas with minorities, involving extra-judicial assassinations and rapes. It is justifiable for the Iranian authorities to act as necessary to preserve order and the country's nationhood. While the NLD is formally recognised by the NLD, the country's right to politics is still restricted.
Those opposed to the régime have vanished and have been detained. According to the 1974 Constitutional Treaty, the government called on various organisations to join it. It has tried to encourage Buddhism and oppress other faiths in areas of minorities. Employees' prerogatives are limited, trade unionism is prohibited, and the use of hard labour for community work, the production of foods and other goods and the provision of other ammunition is a custom.
The army staff regularly seize cattle, fuels, foods, alcoholic beverages and civilian funds. Army activity. In 1962, the army (the Tatmadaw) became the dominating politic and economical power, with a large part of the people in the army since the 1960'. There were an estimate of 186,000 men and woman in the army, another 73,000 in the People's Police and 35,000 in the People's Militia in 1985.
Given the country's poor and internationally isolated status, the army is poorly equipped and underdeveloped. In 1987, total outlays on the army fell from around 33 per cent in the early 70s to around 21 per cent, which corresponds to less than 4 per cent of GDP. The reduction in staff and material costs was cancelled out in 1988.
Up to 1997, the army had risen to over 350,000 and its expenditure had risen sharply. Currently, the government's expenditure on armed forces is higher than non-military expenditure. Army commanders and their family have an important part in business matters outside the official activity of the army. The same applies both to the official economies of state business subjects and to the illegal trade, especially drug-trafficking.
Formally, the military's roles include intimidating the people and fighting racial uprising. Men as well as woman work in agriculture, but the single jobs are often related to the sex. Husbands are preparing the country for cultivation, sowing seed and females transplanting saplings. The harvest is carried out by both men and females.
The most housework is done by a woman. Articles made of metals, timber or stones are generally made by men, and they are usually woven by males. Pottering, basketwork, braiding, lacquering and umbrella making can be done by men or woman. Females work mainly in education and health care. Both men and woman are engaged in sales and trade in small markets. the shop is in the hand of men, but many medium-sized and small companies are run by woman.
Separation is relatively frequent and usually includes the pair stopping living together and sharing their assets. Freshly-wed couples can stay with a partner's parent (often the wife's parent), but soon start their own house. Females are in charge of most of the housework. Myanmar woman carries a baby on her hips, while most mountain dwellers keep her in a noose.
Historically, all young people aged eight to ten attended classes in a Buddhist convent near the city where they got to know Buddhism and learnt to literacy. Few females were trained under this system; their training took place mainly at home as they learnt how to do homework.
Curricula are reviewed by the army and teaching in non-Burmese is often prohibited. Following the 1988 riots, in which many of our fellow citizens were engaged in anti-government activity, extensive university and college shutdowns took place. It' regarded as inappropriate to loose one's composure or to show much emotions in the open, but the Burmese are a very kind and open-minded population.
Myanmar and other Buddhists adhere to the Buddha ist tradition of not contacting a human being on the top of the human mind, as this is regarded as the highest part of the bod. Nearly 90 per cent of the population is Buddhists, and the percentage is higher among the vast majority of the population. Myanmar follows the Theravada type of Buddhism, also known as Hinayana Buddhism and the teachings of the Ancients or the small car.
It is thought that Buddhism was established in Burma in the third millennium by emissaries of the Ashoka emperors of India Buddhism is persecuted by many non-Burmese communities. Whilst all these groups are following Theravada Buddhism, there are some distinctions between the faith and practice of the Myanmar people.
In the Burmese this involves the adoration of native people, who may be associated with homes, people, and people. Approximately 3 per cent of the people, especially in more remote areas, who follow exclusively animationism. A further 4 per cent of the total Christian populace (3 per cent Baptists and 1 per cent Catholics), 4 per cent Muslims, 4 per cent Hindus and 1 per cent animists.
At the age of ten to sixteen, most young men and some young girls become buddhistic novices and move to a cloister. It is important to use conventional methods of medical treatment, especially for minority people. IDU used to be a particular issue in the north-eastern part of the country's minority communities, but since 1988 it has been spreading to the lowland and Burma's predominantly populated areas.
This is an occasion for the régime to encourage nationalistic feelings, and some are followed by festivities. Much more important for most Burmese are the older festivals associated with farming and the Buddha School. Girl with grass in Maymio, Burma. They had a high place in our tradition of social life, which has been weakened today by the militarist state.
In 1962, the 1962 army regimes promoted artistic practices that supported its nationalistic and socialistic agendas. There has been little state aid since 1988. Most of the writings within Burma's community have been and still are mainly written for theatre productions (?pwe ) and the production of Buddhist writings.
You can also find some English literature from Burma's Colonies. Two of the early books by H. Fielding are among the early books that deal with the Burmese: The best-known novel in Burma by far is George Orwell's Burmese Days (1934), a critique of Britain's settlement with the colonies.
Government Lacquerware School was founded in 1924 by the Pagan area. In Burma it achieved its highest shape in the manufacture of lun-taya ageik canvas. In the 18th c. the technology was imported from Manipur, but the complicated motives are clearly Myanmar. The fabric is still weaved near Mandalay and is sold to the Myanmar mob.
Among the ethnical minority there are pronounced textiles tradition. After the 1962 acquisition, there was a resurgence of interest in Burma issues. Each year, the new government organized an exhibit to support selected artists. Expositions ended in 1988, but the army regimes permitted the art academy to stay open.
Recent painting continues to focus on Myanmar, especially with regard to religion and landscape. Whereas today SECRETARY performative art dominates pop culture, the army régime continues to promote more conventional theatre productions and visual art colleges still teaching conventional theatre and dancing, although the audience consists mainly of visitors, expats and members of the dominant élite.
Letter from Burma, 1997. Origins of modern Burma 1995. Myths and histories of early Burma: Carey, Peter, Ed. Burma: Myanmar lacquerware, 1985. Craftwork in Burma in the past and present 1994. Burma: Nazism as political paranoia in Burma: Howard, Michael C. Textiles of the Mountain People of Burma 1999.
Myanmar and the Art of Painting, 2000. Burma's fight for democracy, second edition, 1990. Myanmar in revolt: Luce, Gordon H. Phases of pre-Pagan Burmese languages and histories, 1995. Burma Historical and Cultural Dictionary 1973. Burma's road to poverty 1991.
Renard, Ronald D. The Myanmar Connection: Noel F. Myanmar puppet singer, 1992. Myanmar Dance and Theatre 1995. Burma: Myanmar Supernaturalism, second edition, 1974. Family and Marriage in Burma 1977.
Burmese tradition and its vicissitudes 1982. Other anthropological or Burmese brother? Essay on Burma's Buddhist past 1988. Burma's Arts and Architecture, 1990. Taylor, Robert H. The state in Burma, 1987.